For other uses, see .

Not to be confused with .

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an in the best known for her pivotal role in the . The has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".

On December 1, 1955, in , , Parks refused to obey bus driver 's order to give up her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation, but the believed that she was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for in violating Alabama segregation laws. Parks' prominence in the community and her willingness to become a controversial figure inspired the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year, the first major direct action campaign of the post-war civil rights movement. Her case became bogged down in the state courts, but the federal Montgomery bus lawsuit succeeded in November 1956.

Parks' act of defiance and the became important symbols of the movement. She became an international icon of resistance to . She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including , president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and , a new minister in Montgomery who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement.

At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the , a center for training activists for workers' rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen "tired of giving in". Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store, and received death threats for years afterwards.

Shortly after the boycott, she moved to , where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American . She was also active in the movement and the support of in the US.

After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over and there was more work to be done. In her final years, she suffered from . Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP's 1979 , the , the , and a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol's . Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman and third non-US government official to in the . and commemorate on her birthday February 4, while and commemorate the occasion on the anniversary of the day she was arrested, December 1.


Early years

Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in , on February 4, 1913, to Leona (née Edwards), a teacher, and James McCauley, a . In addition to African ancestry, one of her great-grandfathers was and one of her great-grandmothers was a Native American slave. She was small as a child and suffered poor health with chronic . When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to , just outside the state capital, . She grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester. They all were members of the (AME), a century-old independent founded by free blacks in , , in the early nineteenth century.

McCauley attended rural schools until the age of eleven. As a student at the in Montgomery, she took academic and vocational courses. Parks went on to a laboratory school set up by the for secondary education, but dropped out in order to care for her grandmother and later her mother, after they became ill.

Around the turn of the 20th century, the former Confederate states had adopted new constitutions and electoral laws that effectively black voters and, in Alabama, many poor white voters as well. Under the white-established , passed after Democrats regained control of southern legislatures, racial segregation was imposed in public facilities and retail stores in the , including public transportation. Bus and train companies enforced seating policies with separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South, and black education was always underfunded.

Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs:

I'd see the bus pass every day... But to me, that was a way of life; we had no choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world.

Although Parks' autobiography recounts early memories of the kindness of white strangers, she could not ignore the of her society. When the marched down the street in front of their house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. The , founded and staffed by white northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists. Its faculty was ostracized by the white community.

Repeatedly bullied by white children in her neighborhood, Parks often fought back physically. She later said: "As far back as I remember, I could never think in terms of accepting physical abuse without some form of retaliation if possible.":208

Early activism

In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery.:13, 15 He was a member of the , which at the time was collecting money to support the defense of the , a group of black men falsely accused of raping two white women.:690 Rosa took numerous jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her husband's urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when less than 7% of African Americans had a high-school diploma.

In December 1943, Parks became active in the , joined the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, and was elected secretary at a time when this was considered a woman's job. She later said, "I was the only woman there, and they needed a secretary, and I was too timid to say no." She continued as secretary until 1957. She worked for the local NAACP leader , even though he maintained that "Women don't need to be nowhere but in the kitchen." When Parks asked, "Well, what about me?", he replied: "I need a secretary and you are a good one."

In 1944, in her capacity as secretary, she investigated the gang-rape of , a black woman from . Parks and other civil rights activists organized " for Mrs. Recy Taylor", launching what the called "the strongest campaign for equal justice to be seen in a decade."

Although never a member of the , she attended meetings with her husband. The notorious had been brought to prominence by the Communist Party.

In the 1940s, Parks and her husband were members of the . Sometime soon after 1944, she held a brief job at , which, despite its location in , did not permit racial segregation because it was property. She rode on its integrated trolley. Speaking to her biographer, Parks noted, "You might just say Maxwell opened my eyes up." Parks worked as a housekeeper and seamstress for and , a white couple. Politically , the Durrs became her friends. They encouraged—and eventually helped sponsor—Parks in the summer of 1955 to attend the , an education center for activism in workers' rights and racial equality in . There Parks was mentored by the veteran organizer . In 1945, despite the Jim Crow laws and discrimination by registrars, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try.:690

In August 1955, black teenager was brutally murdered after reportedly flirting with a young white woman while visiting relatives in . On November 27, 1955, four days before she would make her stand on the bus, Rosa Parks attended a mass meeting at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery that addressed this case as well as the recent murders of the activists and . The featured speaker was , a black civil rights leader from Mississippi who headed the . Howard brought news of the recent acquittal of the two men who had murdered Till. Parks was deeply saddened and angry at the news, particularly because Till's case had garnered much more attention than any of the cases she and the Montgomery NAACP had worked on—and yet, the two men still walked free.

Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott

Main article:

Seat layout on the bus where Parks sat, December 1, 1955

Montgomery buses: law and prevailing customs

In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance to segregate bus passengers by race. Conductors were empowered to assign seats to achieve that goal. According to the law, no passenger would be required to move or give up their seat and stand if the bus was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom, however, Montgomery bus drivers adopted the practice of requiring black riders to move when there were no white-only seats left.

The first four rows of seats on each Montgomery bus were reserved for whites. Buses had "colored" sections for black people generally in the rear of the bus, although blacks composed more than 75% of the ridership. The sections were not fixed but were determined by placement of a movable sign. Black people could sit in the middle rows until the white section filled; if more whites needed seats, blacks were to move to seats in the rear, stand, or, if there was no room, leave the bus. Black people could not sit across the aisle in the same row as white people. The driver could move the "colored" section sign, or remove it altogether. If white people were already sitting in the front, black people had to board at the front to pay the fare, then disembark and reenter through the rear door.

For years, the black community had complained that the situation was unfair. Parks said, "My resisting being mistreated on the bus did not begin with that particular arrest. I did a lot of walking in Montgomery."

One day in 1943, Parks boarded a bus and paid the fare. She then moved to her seat but driver told her to follow city rules and enter the bus again from the back door. When Parks exited the vehicle, Blake drove off without her. Parks waited for the next bus, determined never to ride with Blake again.

Her refusal to move

Rosa Parks' arrest

After working all day, Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus, a belonging to the , around 6 p.m., Thursday, December 1, 1955, in downtown Montgomery. She paid her fare and sat in an empty seat in the first row of back seats reserved for blacks in the "colored" section. Near the middle of the bus, her row was directly behind the ten seats reserved for white passengers. Initially, she did not notice that the bus driver was the same man, James F. Blake, who had left her in the rain in 1943. As the bus traveled along its regular route, all of the white-only seats in the bus filled up. The bus reached the third stop in front of the Empire Theater, and several white passengers boarded. Blake noted that two or three white passengers were standing, as the front of the bus had filled to capacity. He moved the "colored" section sign behind Parks and demanded that four black people give up their seats in the middle section so that the white passengers could sit. Years later, in recalling the events of the day, Parks said, "When that white driver stepped back toward us, when he waved his hand and ordered us up and out of our seats, I felt a determination cover my body like a quilt on a winter night."

By Parks' account, Blake said, "Y'all better make it light on yourselves and let me have those seats." Three of them complied. Parks said, "The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We didn't move at the beginning, but he says, 'Let me have these seats.' And the other three people moved, but I didn't." The black man sitting next to her gave up his seat.

Parks moved, but toward the window seat; she did not get up to move to the redesignated colored section. Parks later said about being asked to move to the rear of the bus, "I thought of and I just couldn't go back." Blake said, "Why don't you stand up?" Parks responded, "I don't think I should have to stand up." Blake called the police to arrest Parks. When recalling the incident for , a 1987 public television series on the Civil Rights Movement, Parks said, "When he saw me still sitting, he asked if I was going to stand up, and I said, 'No, I'm not.' And he said, 'Well, if you don't stand up, I'm going to have to call the police and have you arrested.' I said, 'You may do that.'"

During a 1956 radio interview with in several months after her arrest, Parks said she had decided, "I would have to know for once and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen."

In her autobiography, My Story, she said:

People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn't true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.

When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?" She remembered him saying, "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest." She later said, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in humiliation of this kind...."

Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11 segregation law of the Montgomery City code, although technically she had not taken a white-only seat; she had been in a colored section., president of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP and leader of the , and her friend bailed Parks out of jail that evening.

Parks did not originate the idea of protesting segregation with a bus . Those preceding her included in 1942, in 1946, in 1951, in 1952, and the members of the ultimately successful 1956 lawsuit (, , , and ) who were arrested in Montgomery for not giving up their bus seats months before Parks.

The boycott

Nixon conferred with , an professor and member of the (WPC), about the Parks case. Robinson believed it important to seize the opportunity and stayed up all night over 35,000 handbills announcing a bus boycott. The Women's Political Council was the first group to officially endorse the boycott.

On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in the helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, those attending agreed unanimously to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis.

The next day, Parks was tried on charges of and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. After being found guilty and fined , plus in court costs, Parks appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial segregation. In a 1992 interview with 's Lynn Neary, Parks recalled:

I did not want to be mistreated, I did not want to be deprived of a seat that I had paid for. It was just time... there was opportunity for me to take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that manner. I had not planned to get arrested. I had plenty to do without having to end up in jail. But when I had to face that decision, I didn't hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the more oppressive it became.

On the day of Parks' trial — December 5, 1955 — the WPC distributed the 35,000 leaflets. The handbill read,

We are ... asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial ... You can afford to stay out of school for one day. If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay off the buses Monday.

It rained that day, but the black community persevered in their boycott. Some rode in carpools, while others traveled in black-operated cabs that charged the same fare as the bus, 10 cents. Most of the remainder of the 40,000 black commuters walked, some as far as 20 miles (30 km).

That evening after the success of the one-day boycott, a group of 16 to 18 people gathered at the Mt. Zion Church to discuss boycott strategies. At that time Parks was introduced but not asked to speak, despite a standing ovation and calls from the crowd for her to speak; when she asked if she should say something, the reply was, "Why, you've said enough."

The group agreed that a new organization was needed to lead the boycott effort if it were to continue. Rev. suggested the name "" (MIA).:432 The name was adopted, and the MIA was formed. Its members elected as their president , a relative newcomer to Montgomery, who was a young and mostly unknown minister of the .

That Monday night, 50 leaders of the African-American community gathered to discuss actions to respond to Parks' arrest. , the president of the NAACP, said, "My God, look what segregation has put in my hands!" Parks was considered the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and state segregation laws, as she was seen as a responsible, mature woman with a good reputation. She was securely married and employed, was regarded as possessing a quiet and dignified demeanor, and was politically savvy. King said that Parks was regarded as "one of the finest citizens of Montgomery—not one of the finest Negro citizens, but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery."

Parks' court case was being slowed down in appeals through the Alabama courts on their way to a Federal appeal and the process could have taken years. Holding together a boycott for that length of time would have been a great strain. In the end, black residents of Montgomery continued the boycott for 381 days. Dozens of public buses stood idle for months, severely damaging the bus transit company's finances, until the city repealed its law requiring segregation on public buses following the US Supreme Court ruling in that it was unconstitutional. Parks was not included as a plaintiff in the Browder decision because the attorney concluded the courts would perceive they were attempting to circumvent her prosecution on her charges working their way through the Alabama state court system.

Parks played an important part in raising international awareness of the plight of African Americans and the civil rights struggle. King wrote in his 1958 book Stride Toward Freedom that Parks' arrest was the catalyst rather than the cause of the protest: "The cause lay deep in the record of similar injustices.":437 He wrote, "Actually, no one can understand the action of Mrs. Parks unless he realizes that eventually the cup of endurance runs over, and the human personality cries out, 'I can take it no longer.'":424

Detroit years


Parks on a Montgomery bus on December 21, 1956, the day Montgomery's public transportation system was legally integrated. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a reporter covering the event.

After her arrest, Parks became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement but suffered hardships as a result. Due to economic sanctions used against activists, she lost her job at the department store. Her husband quit his job after his boss forbade him to talk about his wife or the legal case. Parks traveled and spoke extensively about the issues.

In 1957, Raymond and Rosa Parks left Montgomery for ; mostly because she was unable to find work. She also disagreed with King and other leaders of Montgomery's struggling civil rights movement about how to proceed, and was constantly receiving death threats. In Hampton, she found a job as a hostess in an inn at , a .

Later that year, at the urging of her brother and sister-in-law in , Sylvester and Daisy McCauley, Rosa and Raymond Parks and her mother moved north to join them. The City of Detroit attempted to cultivate a progressive reputation, but Parks encountered numerous signs of discrimination against African-Americans. Schools were effectively segregated, and services in black neighborhoods substandard. In 1964, Parks told an interviewer that, "I don't feel a great deal of difference here... is just as bad, and it seems more noticeable in the larger cities." She regularly participated in the movement for open and .

Parks rendered crucial assistance in the first campaign for Congress by . She persuaded Martin Luther King (who was generally reluctant to endorse local candidates) to appear with Conyers, thereby boosting the novice candidate's profile. When Conyers was elected, he hired her as a secretary and receptionist for his congressional office in Detroit. She held this position until she retired in 1988. In a telephone interview with on October 24, 2005, Conyers recalled, "You treated her with deference because she was so quiet, so serene — just a very special person ... There was only one Rosa Parks." Doing much of the daily constituent work for Conyers, Parks often focused on socio-economic issues including welfare, education, job discrimination, and affordable housing. She visited schools, hospitals, senior citizen facilities, and other community meetings and kept Conyers grounded in community concerns and activism.

Parks participated in activism nationally during the mid-1960s, traveling to support the , the Freedom Now Party, and the . She also befriended , who she regarded as a personal hero.

Like many Detroit blacks, Parks remained particularly concerned about housing issues. She herself lived in a neighborhood, Virginia Park, which had been compromised by highway construction and . By 1962, these policies had destroyed 10,000 structures in Detroit, displacing 43,096 people, 70 percent of them African-American. Parks lived just a mile from the epicenter of that took place in Detroit in 1967, and she considered housing discrimination a major factor that provoked the disorder.

In the aftermath Parks collaborated with members of the and the in raising awareness of police abuse during the conflict. She served on a "people's tribunal" on August 30, 1967, investigating the killing of three young men by police during the 1967 Detroit uprising, in what came to be known as the . She also helped form the Virginia Park district council to help rebuild the area. The council facilitated the building of the only black-owned shopping center in the country. Parks took part in the movement, attending the Philadelphia Black Power conference, and the Black Political Convention in Gary, Indiana. She also supported and visited the school in Oakland.


Rosa Parks c.1978

In the 1970s, Parks organized for the freedom of in the United States, particularly cases involving issues of self-defense. She helped found the Detroit chapter of the Defense Committee, and also worked in support of the Wilmington 10, the RNA-11, and . Following national outcry around her case, Little succeeded in her defense that she used deadly force to resist sexual assault and was acquitted. Gary Tyler was finally released in April 2016 after 41 years in prison.

The 1970s were a decade of loss for Parks in her personal life. Her family was plagued with illness; she and her husband had suffered stomach ulcers for years and both required hospitalization. In spite of her fame and constant speaking engagements, Parks was not a wealthy woman. She donated most of the money from speaking to civil rights causes, and lived on her staff salary and her husband's pension. Medical bills and time missed from work caused financial strain that required her to accept assistance from church groups and admirers.

Her husband died of throat cancer on August 19, 1977, and her brother, her only sibling, died of cancer that November. Her personal ordeals caused her to become removed from the civil rights movement. She learned from a newspaper of the death of , once a close friend. Parks suffered two broken bones in a fall on an icy sidewalk, an injury which caused considerable and recurring pain. She decided to move with her mother into an apartment for senior citizens. There she nursed her mother Leona through the final stages of cancer and geriatric dementia until she died in 1979 at the age of 92.


In 1980, Parks—widowed and without immediate family—rededicated herself to civil rights and educational organizations. She co-founded the for college-bound high school seniors, to which she donated most of her speaker fees. In February 1987 she co-founded, with Elaine Eason Steele, the , an institute that runs the "Pathways to Freedom" bus tours which introduce young people to important civil rights and sites throughout the country. Parks also served on the Board of Advocates of . Though her health declined as she entered her seventies, Parks continued to make many appearances and devoted considerable energy to these causes.


In 1992, Parks published Rosa Parks: My Story, an autobiography aimed at younger readers, which recounts her life leading to her decision to keep her seat on the bus. A few years later, she published Quiet Strength (1995), her memoir, which focuses on her faith.

At age 81 Parks was robbed and assaulted in her home in central Detroit on August 30, 1994. The assailant, Joseph Skipper, broke down the door but claimed he had chased away an intruder. He requested a reward and when Parks paid him, he demanded more. Parks refused and he attacked her. Hurt and badly shaken, Parks called a friend, who called the police. A neighborhood manhunt led to Skipper's capture and reported beating. Parks was treated at Detroit Receiving Hospital for facial injuries and swelling on the right side of her face. Parks said about the attack on her by the African-American man, "Many gains have been made ... But as you can see, at this time we still have a long way to go." Skipper was sentenced to 8 to 15 years and was transferred to prison in another state for his own safety.

Suffering anxiety upon returning to her small central Detroit house following the ordeal, Parks moved into , a secure high-rise apartment building. Learning of Parks' move, owner offered to pay for her housing expenses for as long as necessary.

In 2016 Rosa's Detroit house was disassembled, moved to , and partly restored.

In 1994 the applied to sponsor a portion of United States in and , Missouri, near , for cleanup (which allowed them to have signs stating that this section of highway was maintained by the organization). Since the state could not refuse the KKK's sponsorship, the Missouri legislature voted to name the highway section the "Rosa Parks Highway". When asked how she felt about this honor, she is reported to have commented, "It is always nice to be thought of."

In 1999 Parks filmed a cameo appearance for the television series . It was her last appearance on film; Parks began to suffer from health problems due to old age.


In 2002 Parks received an eviction notice from her ,800 per month apartment for non-payment of rent. Parks was incapable of managing her own financial affairs by this time due to age-related physical and mental decline. Her rent was paid from a collection taken by Hartford Memorial Baptist Church in Detroit. When her rent became delinquent and her impending eviction was highly publicized in 2004, executives of the ownership company announced they had forgiven the back rent and would allow Parks, by then 91 and in extremely poor health, to live rent-free in the building for the remainder of her life. Elaine Steele, manager of the nonprofit Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute, told the newspaper that Parks got proper care, and that eviction notices were sent in error in 2002. Her heirs and various interest organizations alleged at the time that her financial affairs had been mismanaged.

Death and funeral

Parks died of on October 24, 2005, at the age of 92, in her apartment on the east side of . She and her husband never had children and she outlived her only sibling. She was survived by her sister-in-law (Raymond's sister), 13 nieces and nephews and their families, and several cousins, most of them residents of Michigan or Alabama.

City officials in Montgomery and Detroit announced on October 27, 2005, that the front seats of their city buses would be reserved with black ribbons in honor of Parks until her funeral. Parks' coffin was flown to Montgomery and taken in a horse-drawn hearse to the St. Paul (AME) church, where she at the altar on October 29, 2005, dressed in the uniform of a church deaconess. A memorial service was held there the following morning. One of the speakers, , said that if it had not been for Parks, she would probably have never become the Secretary of State. In the evening the casket was transported to and transported by a bus similar to the one in which she made her protest, to lie in honor in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

Since the founding of the practice in 1852, Parks was the 31st person, the first American who had not been a U.S. government official, and the second private person (after the French planner ) to be honored in this way. She was the first woman and the second black person to lie in honor in the Capitol. An estimated 50,000 people viewed the casket there, and the event was broadcast on television on October 31, 2005. A memorial service was held that afternoon at in Washington, DC.

With her body and casket returned to Detroit, for two days, Parks lay in repose at the . Her funeral service was seven hours long and was held on November 2, 2005, at the Greater Grace Temple Church in Detroit. After the service, an honor guard from the laid the U.S. flag over the casket and carried it to a horse-drawn hearse, which was intended to carry it, in daylight, to the cemetery. As the hearse passed the thousands of people who were viewing the procession, many clapped, cheered loudly and released white balloons. Parks was interred between her husband and mother at Detroit's in the chapel's mausoleum. The chapel was renamed the Rosa L. Parks Freedom Chapel in her honor. Parks had previously prepared and placed a headstone on the selected location with the inscription "Rosa L. Parks, wife, 1913–."

Legacy and honors

Rosa Parks Transit Center, Detroit sitting on the bus. Parks was arrested sitting in the same row Obama is in, but on the opposite side. A plaque entitled "The Bus Stop" at Dexter Ave. and Montgomery St.—the place Rosa Parks boarded the bus—pays tribute to her and the success of the Montgomery bus boycott.
  • 1976, renamed 12th Street "Rosa Parks Boulevard."
  • 1979, the NAACP awarded Parks the , its highest honor,
  • 1980, she received the Martin Luther King Jr. Award.
  • 1983, she was inducted into for her achievements in .
  • 1984, she received a from the .
  • 1990,
  • 1992, she received the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award along with Dr. and others at the Kennedy Library and Museum in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • 1994, she received an honorary doctorate from in Tokyo, Japan.
  • 1995, she received the in Williamsburg, Virginia.
  • 1996, she was awarded the , the highest honor given by the US executive branch.
  • 1998, she was the first to receive the International Freedom Conductor Award given by the .
  • 1999,
    • she received the , the highest award given by the US legislative branch, the medal bears the legend "Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement"
    • she receives the Freedom Award.
    • named Parks one of the 20 most influential and iconic figures of the 20th century.
    • President honored her in his , saying, "She's sitting down with the first lady tonight, and she may get up or not as she chooses."
  • 2000,
    • her home state awarded her the Alabama Academy of Honor,
    • she receives the first Governor's Medal of Honor for Extraordinary Courage.
    • She was awarded two dozen honorary doctorates from universities worldwide
    • She is made an honorary member of the sorority.
    • the on the campus of in Montgomery was dedicated to her.
  • 2002,
  • 2003, Bus No. 2857 on which Parks was riding is restored and placed on display in
  • 2004, In the system, the Imperial Highway/Wilmington station, where the connects with the , has been officially named the .
  • 2005,
    • On October 30, 2005 President issued a ordering that all flags on U.S. public areas both within the country and abroad be flown at on the day of Parks' funeral.
    • in placed posters and stickers dedicating the first forward-facing seat of all its buses in Parks' memory shortly after her death,
    • the American Public Transportation Association declared December 1, 2005, the 50th anniversary of her arrest, to be a "National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day".
    • On that anniversary, President George W. Bush signed , directing that a statue of Parks be placed in the United States Capitol's . In signing the resolution directing the Joint Commission on the Library to do so, the President stated:

      By placing her statue in the heart of the nation's Capitol, we commemorate her work for a more perfect union, and we commit ourselves to continue to struggle for justice for every American.

    • Portion of in was renamed by the state legislature as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway in December 2005.
  • 2006,
    • At , played at Detroit's , long-time Detroit residents and Parks were remembered and honored by a moment of silence. The Super Bowl was dedicated to their memory. Parks' nieces and nephews and joined the coin toss ceremonies, standing alongside former star who flipped the coin.
    • On February 14, Executive, announced that the Hempstead Transit Center would be renamed the in her honor.
    • On October 27, Pennsylvania Governor signed a bill into law designating the portion of through as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway.
  • 2007, , renamed MetroCenter Boulevard (8th Avenue North) ( and ) as Rosa L. Parks Boulevard.
  • 2009, On July 14, 2009, the opened in Detroit at the corner of Michigan and Cass Avenues.
  • 2010, In , a plaza in the heart of the city is named .
  • 2012, President Barack Obama visited the famous Rosa Parks bus at the Henry Ford Museum after an event in Dearborn, Michigan, April 18, 2012.
  • 2012, A street in , (the state's second largest city), leading to the Utah Cultural Celebration Center was renamed Rosa Parks Drive.
  • 2013,
    • On February 1, President proclaimed February 4, 2013, as the "100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks." He called "upon all Americans to observe this day with appropriate service, community, and education programs to honor Rosa Parks's enduring legacy."
    • On February 4, to celebrate Rosa Parks' 100th birthday, the declared the day a "National Day of Courage" with 12 hours of virtual and on-site activities featuring nationally recognized speakers, musical and dramatic interpretative performances, a panel presentation of "Rosa's Story" and a reading of the tale "Quiet Strength". The actual bus on which Rosa Parks sat was made available for the public to board and sit in the seat that Rosa Parks refused to give up.
    • On February 4, 2,000 birthday wishes gathered from people throughout the United States were transformed into 200 graphics messages at a celebration held on her 100th Birthday at the in Montgomery, Alabama. This was the 100th Birthday Wishes Project managed by the at and the and was also a declared event by the Senate.
    • During both events the unveiled a postage stamp in her honor.
    • On February 27, Parks became the first African-American woman to have her likeness depicted in . The monument, created by sculptor , is a part of the Capitol Art Collection among nine other females featured in the .
  • 2014, the asteroid (284996) Rosaparks was named after Rosa Parks.
  • 2015,
    • The papers of Rosa Parks were cataloged into the Library of Congress, after years of a legal battle.
    • On December 13, the new opened in .
  • 2016
    • The house lived in by Rosa Parks's brother, Sylvester McCauley, his wife Daisy, and their 13 children, and where Rosa Parks often visited and stayed after leaving Montgomery, was bought by her niece Rhea McCauley for 0 and donated to the artist . It was subsequently dismantled and shipped to where it was re-erected in Mendoza's garden. In 2018 it was returned to the United States and rebuilt at the Arts Center, Providence, Rhode Island, where it was put on public display, accompanied by a range of interpretive materials and public and scholarly events.

In popular culture

  • In 1979, the trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Parks's name and picture.
  • recorded a song about Parks called "Sister Rosa" on their 1989 album . A music video for the song was also made.
  • The song "Daybreak" from ' 1994 album pays tribute to Parks with the line "Sister Rosa Lee Parks / Love forever her name in your heart".
  • In March 1999, Parks filed a lawsuit () against American hip-hop duo and their record company, claiming that the duo's song "", the most successful radio single of their 1998 album , had used her name without permission. The lawsuit was settled on April 15, 2005 (six months and nine days before Parks' death); OutKast, their producer and record labels paid Parks an undisclosed cash settlement. They also agreed to work with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute to create educational programs about the life of Rosa Parks. The record label and OutKast admitted to no wrongdoing. Responsibility for the payment of legal fees was not disclosed.
  • The documentary (2001) received a 2002 nomination for . She collaborated on a TV movie of her life, (2002), starring .
  • The film (2002) featured a barber, played by , arguing with others that other African Americans before Parks had been active in bus integration, but she was renowned as an NAACP secretary. The activists and launched a boycott against the film, contending it was "disrespectful", but NAACP president stated he thought the controversy was "overblown." Parks was offended and boycotted the NAACP 2003 ceremony, which Cedric hosted.
  • 's track "Shutdown" includes the lyrics "Sittin' at the front, just like Rosa Parks".

See also


  1. . Retrieved November 13, 2011. The quoted passages can be seen by clicking through to the text or PDF.
  2. González, Juan; Goodman, Amy (March 29, 2013). . . . 25 minutes in. NPR. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  3. Branch, Taylor (1988). . Simon & Schuster. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  4. Theoharis, Jeanne (December 1, 2015). – via Washington Post. 
  5. Brinkley, Douglas (2000). . Rosa Parks. Lipper/Viking; excerpt published in The New York Times.  . Retrieved July 1, 2008. 
  6. Webb, James. . Archived from the original on July 4, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown () , , October 3, 2004. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
  7. ^ (October 25, 2005). . The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  8. Shraff, Anne (2005). . Enslow. pp. 23–27.  . 
  9. . Rosa Parks Bus. . Retrieved July 1, 2008. 
  10. Harrington, Walt (8 October 1995). . . republished in Congressional Record Volume 141, Number 176; November 8, 1995. Retrieved July 19, 2016. 
  11. ^ Theoharis, Jeanne (2013). . Beacon Press.  . Retrieved July 19, 2016. 
  12. ^ Crewe, Sabrina; Walsh, Frank (2002). "Chapter 3: The Boycott". . Gareth Stevens. p. 15.  . Retrieved July 19, 2016. 
  13. ^ Whitaker, Matthew (March 9, 2011). . ABC-CLIO.  . 
  14. Feeney, Mark (October 25, 2005). . Boston Globe. Retrieved July 31, 2009. 
  15. ^ Olson, L. (2001). . Scribner. p. 97.  . Retrieved August 1, 2015. 
  16. McGuire, Danielle (December 1, 2012). . CNN. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  17. . Tell Me More. National Public Radio. February 16, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2016. 
  18. , , May 2004. Retrieved May 27, 2007. R. Alexander Acosta, Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Rights Division, states, "This brutal murder and grotesque miscarriage of justice outraged a nation and helped galvanize support for the modern American civil rights movement."
  19. Beito, David T.; Royster Beito, Linda (2009). Black Maverick: T. R. M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. 138–39. 
  20. . Retrieved September 11, 2016. 
  21. , 142 F. Supp. 707 (1956)
  22. Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. (1986)  , p. 13.
  23. , The Guardian obituaries, March 26, 2002. Retrieved December 27, 2016.
  24. Woo, Elaine (October 25, 2005). . . Retrieved July 22, 2011. 
  25. (PDF). Archived from (PDF) on September 6, 2015. Retrieved March 14, 2016. 
  26. Williams, Donnie; Greenhaw, Wayne (2005). The Thunder of Angels: The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the People who Broke the Back of Jim Crow. Chicago Review Press. p. 48.  . 
  27. Parks, Rosa (1992). "Main Reason For Keeping Her Seat". (adobe flash) (radio interview). Interviewed by Lynn Neary. . from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2014.  linked at . NPR. October 25, 2005. Archived from on November 2, 2005. Retrieved July 4, 2008. 
  28. ^ , CNN, October 25, 2005. Retrieved July 4, 2008.
  29. ^ Audio interview of Parks linked from , , October 25, 2005. Retrieved July 4, 2008.
  30. Houck, Davis; Grindy, Matthew (2008). Emmett Till and the Mississippi Press. Jackson, Miss.: University Press of Mississippi. p. x.  . 
  31. (2002). Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965. Penguin Books. p. 66.  . 
  32. Marsh, Charles (2006). The Beloved Community: How Faith Shapes Social Justice from the Civil Rights to Today. Basic Books. p. 21.  . 
  33. Parks, Rosa; James Haskins (1992). Rosa Parks: My Story. Dial Books. p. 116.  . 
  34. October 4, 2011, at the . (video and text of interview), , June 2, 1995. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  35. Wright, Roberta Hughes (1991). The Birth of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Charro Press. p. 27.  . 
  36. Hawken, Paul (2007). Blessed Unrest: How the Largest Movement in the World Came Into Being, and Why No One Saw it Coming. Viking. p. 79.  . 
  37. Phibbs, Cheryl (2009). . Greenwood. p. 15.  . 
  38. Burns, Stewart (1997). Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott. UNC Press. p. 9.  . 
  39. Rustin, Bayard (July 1942). "Non-Violence vs. ". Fellowship.  reprinted in ; ; (2003). . Library of America. pp. 15–18. Retrieved September 13, 2011. 
  40. Borger, Julian (3 April 2006). . . Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  41. Parks, Rosa (1992). "Main Reason For Keeping Her Seat". (adobe flash) (radio interview). Interviewed by Lynn Neary. . from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2014.  linked at . NPR. October 25, 2005. Archived from on November 2, 2005. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 
  42. Parks, Rosa (1992). "On the possibility of Arrest". (adobe flash). (radio interview). Interviewed by Lynn Neary. from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2014.  linked at . NPR. October 25, 2005. Archived from on November 2, 2005. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 
  43. .
  44. ^ Washington, James M. (1991). A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. HarperCollins.  . 
  45. (October 25, 2005). . . p. 1. Retrieved July 4, 2008. 
  46. Parks, Rosa; Haskins, James (1992). Rosa Parks: My Story. Dial Books. p. 125.  . 
  47. (PDF). NC Civic Education Consortium. University of North Carolina. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  48. . King Institute Encyclopedia. Stanford University. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  49. ^ Theoharis, Jeanne. (PDF). OAH Magazine of History. 26 (1): 23–27. Archived from (PDF) on December 7, 2014. 
  50. . CNN. October 30, 2005. Retrieved July 1, 2008. 
  51. Theoharis, Jeanne (March 2, 2013). . Huffington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2015. 
  52. . Retrieved September 11, 2016. 
  53. .
  54. .
  55. . . February 3, 2013. 
  56. . Retrieved September 11, 2016. 
  57. Theoharis, Jeanne; Woodard, Komozi (2009). "A Life History of Being Rebellious: The Radicalism of Rosa Parks". In Gore, Dayo F. . New York University Press. pp. 131–132. 
  58. . Retrieved September 11, 2016. 
  59. July 15, 2009, at the ., , October 31, 2005. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  60. , main page. Retrieved November 13, 2011. (Not a citation for Parks's role as a founder, just for the foundation itself.)[]
  61. . []
  62. O'Reilly, Andrea (2010). . Encyclopedia of Motherhood, Volume 1. SAGE Publishing. p. 969. 
  63. Levintova, Hannah (September 17, 2015). . . 
  64. New York Times, August 31, 1994. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  65. Women's eNews, February 2, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  66. "Man Gets Prison Term For Attack on Rosa Parks", , August 8, 1995.
  67. . . reprinted in the , 2 September 1994. . 3 September 1994. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  68. Botta, Christopher (24 February 2014). . Sports Business Daily. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  69. McGrane, Sally (May 2, 2017). . The New York Times
  70. Rosenthal, Ilena (February 4, 2003). . Archived from on August 17, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  71. . 3 December 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2001. 
  72. Masius, John (2 May 1999). "Black Like Monica". . Season 5. Episode 23. CBS. CBS. 
  73. . .com. Associated Press. December 6, 2004. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  74. . Architect of the Capitol. 2009-12-01. Retrieved December 1, 2009. 
  75. , (United States Senate); content cited to Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
  76. Wilgoren, Debbi; Labbe, Theola S. (1 November 2005). . . Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  77. Esparza, Santiago. "Parks to remain private in death", , November 3, 2005. . Archived from the original on June 14, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown () . Retrieved July 5, 2008.
  78. (PDF). Walter P. Reuther Library. p. 1. Archived from (PDF) on January 21, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  79. July 7, 2010, at the ., NAACP, no date but list goes through 2010. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  80. June 27, 2009, at the Portuguese Web Archive, NAACP press release, April 3, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  81. . Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  82. . Archived from on October 10, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2012. 
  83. . National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from on March 14, 2003. 
  84. Ashby, Ruth. Rosa Parks: Freedom Rider, Sterling Publishing  
  85. . . September 5, 1990. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  86. . Rosa Parks Foundation. January 22, 2005. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  87. . United States Library of Congress. March 16, 2000. Retrieved 23 October 2015. 
  88. . The Washington Post. January 28, 2000. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  89. . Chicago Tribune. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  90. Company, Johnson Publishing (December 18, 2000). . : 8. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  91. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). "Rosa Parks". 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.  . 
  92. . Parks Bus Restored. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  93. . TriMet. February 4, 2009. Archived from on December 2, 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2009. 
  94. . . February 3, 2009. Retrieved February 10, 2009. 
  95. ", . Retrieved July 5, 2008. August 14, 2009, at the .
  96. item "Buses are memorial to Rosa Parks", Seattle Times, November 1, 2005. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
  97. . American Public Transportation Association. September 27, 2007. Archived from on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2011. 
  98. . 2005-12-01. Retrieved December 4, 2005. 
  99. . . 2001. Retrieved August 18, 2006. 
  100. . Archived from on April 7, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  101. , , 2006, retrieved March 30, 2018 
  102. . Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Archived from on January 13, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011. 
  103. Shea, Bill (9 July 2009). . Crain's Business Detroit. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  104. Neugebauer, Cimaron (November 15, 2012). . The Salt Lake Tribune
  105. . Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  106. ^ . Congressional Record 112th Congress (2011–2012). Library of Congress. December 19, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  107. . CBS News. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  108. . ABC News. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  109. . Retrieved July 19, 2016. 
  110. Cornish, Audie (7 February 2015). . NPR. Retrieved February 9, 2015. 
  111. . Retrieved April 10, 2017. 
  112. Wulf, Steve (March 23, 2015). . Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  113. Wallinger, Hanna (2006). Transitions: Race, Culture, and the Dynamics of Change. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. p. 126.  . 
  114. , Vol. 107, No. 18, May 2, 2005
  115. on
  116. . . Associated Press. January 25, 2003. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  117. . Associated Press. March 9, 2003. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 

Further reading

  • Editorial. 1974. "Two decades later." New York Times (May 17): 38. ("Within a year of , Rosa Parks, a tired seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, was, like sixty years earlier, arrested for her refusal to move to the back of the bus.")
  • Barnes, Catherine A. Journey from Jim Crow: The Desegregation of Southern Transit, Columbia University Press, 1983.
  • Rosa Parks with , Rosa Parks: My Story New York: Scholastic Inc., 1992.  
  • Brinkley, Douglas. Rosa Parks: A Life, Penguin Books, October 25, 2005.  
  • The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks by Jeanne Theoharis, Beacon Press, 2015,  
  • Morris, Aldon (Summer 2012). . . . 11 (3): 25. :. 

External links

Multimedia and interviews