This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at http://lib.berkeley.edu/EART

This webpage is for archival purposes only. It is no longer being maintained. Please see our new website at

DICTIONARY OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS, CARTOGRAPHY, AND REMOTE SENSING

The compilers wish to thank Bryon D.H. Ellingson for the approximately 1,100 names we were allowed to incorporate into this dictionary from his unpublished Acronyms & Abbreviations (6th ed., 1995), and for contributions by Chris Bledsoe, Richard A. Buggelli, John Creaser, Peter De Vincentis, Alice Drew, Rodney Evans Garrett, Ryan Goodpasture, Cristina Gouveia, Linda Grover, Peter Grueschow, Jim Guthrie, Greg Hajic, Alex Irving, David Irving, Ron Jones, Khaleel Khan, Doug Kibbe, Bob Kilmer, Mark Leitzell, Rick Lorenz, Mike Molloy, Philip Mulholland, Kevin J. Newland, Mike Oimoen, Uriel Perez, Abram Pointet, Beverly Ryan, Steve Scamp, Rich Soares, Joan Steber, J Steele, Cristina P. Tanzi, Zoltan Vekerdy, David R.W. Wadsworth, Bob Ware, M.G. Quill Williams and Alberta Wood.   NASA-Ames Research Center Technology Applications Branch's Acronyms Reference Guide (1981) was an invaluable source.

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l Liter l. Links La. Louisiana LA Land access; Louisiana L.A. Los Angeles (Calif.) LAAS Local Area Augmentation System LAC Libraries and Archives Canada = Bibliotheque et Archives du Canada; Litografia Artistica Cartografica; Local Area Composite LACIE Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment LADAR Laser Detection and Ranging LAGEO Laser Geodynamic Satellite LAGIC Louisiana Geographic Information Center LAMP Low Altitude Mapping Photogrammetry LAMPS Laser-scan Automated Map Production System LAMS Large Area Mosaicing Software LAN Local area network LAND Landmark feature identification number LANDRU Local Access to Networked Data Retrieval Utility (Univ. of Calgary) LANDSAT Land Satellite LAP Landsat Applications Program (PNW) LaRC Langley Research Center (NASA) LARIS Louisiana Areal Resource Information System LARS Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (Purdue Univ.) LARSYS Laboratory of Applications of Remote Sensing Image Data Processing System (Purdue Univ.) LAS Land Analysis System LASN Local Area Spatial Network LASS Land Applications Satellite System (ESA) Lat. Latitude LAT Large Area Triangulation LAU Landesamt fur Umweltschutz (Saarland) LBA Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia LBR Laser Beam Recorder LBS Location-based services LC Library of Congress (U.S.); Land cover L/C Land cover LCA Land cover analysis LCC Lambert conformal conic (projection) LCD Liquid-crystal displays LCDB Land Cover Database LCDC Land Conservation and Development LCGMD Library of Congress Geography and Map Div. (U.S.) LCGTF Library of Congress Genre/Forms Terms for Library and Archival Materials LCMMP California Land Cover Mapping & Monitoring Program LCS Liberian Cartographic Service LCTY Locality LDAS Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) LDPC Local Datum Plane Coordinate LDD Land Development Desktop 2i LDLS Lesotho Dept. of Lands, Surveys and Physical Planning LDMG Lesotho Dept. of Mines and Geology LDNG Landing LDO Land Development Office (NovaLIS Technologies) LDSI LandDesign Surveying Inc. LE Less than or equal LEAF Land Ecosystem Atmosphere Feedback LEC Lockheed Electronics Company LEM Landform Elevation Model; Lunar Escape Module LEO Low Earth orbit LEP Linear Error Probable LES Lincoln Electric System LF Large format; Line feed LFC Large format camera LFI Schweizerisches Landesforstinventar LFVZ Leichtensteinische Fremdenverkehrszentrale lg. lang Lg. Lange LGIS Land Geographic Information System LGISC Louisiana Geographic Information Systems Council LGN Lagoon LGS Liberian Geological Survey; Louisiana Geological Survey LGSOWOG Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group lH lichte Hohe LI Landmaelingar Islands LIA Land Information and Analysis office (USGS) LIBER-
 Gdc Ligue des Biblioth`eques Europeennes de Recherche, Groupe des cartothecaires LIC Land Information Centre LICGF Land Information & Computer Graphics Facility (Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison) LIDAR, Lidar Light Detection and Ranging Lieut. Lieutenant LIGO Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory LIM Land identification method; Land Inventory and Management Program (USSCS) LIMA Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica LIMAP Landsat Imagery Analysis Package (S.Dakota) LIMO Land Information Management Office (Miami County, Kans.) LIMS Location Management System LINZ Land Information New Zealand LIO Land Information Ontario LIS Land information system(s); Landsat Information System; Library and information science; Lightening Imaging Sensor LISCOM Land Information Systems Committee (So. Australia) LIT Land Information Toronto Lith. Lithographed; lithographer LK Lake LKB Lockwood, Kessler & Bartlett Inc. LKC Crater lake LKI Intermittent lake LKS Lakes LKSC Crater lakes LL Line-by-line LLA Adjusted line length LLC Line length code LLV Low Light Visibility LMCTF Land Managers Cooperative Task Force (Alaska) LMIC Land Management Information Center LMP Land Management Planning LMS Large-scale mapping system LMV Statens Lantmateriverket (Sweden) LO Located object L&O Limnology & Oceanography (journal) LOC Library of Congress; Landsat Oversight Committee (Colorado) LOD Levels of detail LOGIC Loveland Geographic Information/Cartographic System LOMA Letters of map amendment LOMC Letters of map correction LOMR Letters of map revision Lon. Longitude Long. Longitude LORAN Long Range Navigation (system) LOS Land Observation Satellite (Japan); Line-of-sight LP Line printer LPGS Landsat Product Generation System; Level 1 Product General System LPI Lines per inch; Lunar and Planetary Institute LPM Load point marker LPS Library Programs Service (USGPO); Local positioning systems LQ Letter quality LR Laser Retroflector LRD Low resolution data LRDA Land Resources Data Analysis LRDB Low Resolution Data Base LRDC Land Resources Development Centre LRIDP Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project (PNW) LRIS Land Registration and Information Service (Maritime Provinces); Land Resource Information System (S. Dakota and N. Carolina) LRITF Land Resources Inventory Task Force LRM Linear Referencing Method LRR Laser Retro-reflector LRS Linear Referencing System LRU Line Replaceable Unit; Line Replacement Unit LRUD Left, right, up, down L/S Landsat LSACTS Land Surveyors Advisory Council on Technical Standards (California) LSAW Land Surveyors' Assn. of Washington LSD Land Surface Datum; Lands and Survey Div. (Trinidad and Tobago) LSDP Landsat Signature Development Program (software) LSI LiDAR Services International LSIT Land surveyor in training LSM Land Surface Models (NASA) LSN Linear scaling number LSO Land Surveyors Online LSPS Louisiana Society of Professional Surveyors LSR Local Space Rectangular LSRC Louisiana Spatial Reference Center LSRP Laser Printer Lst Ladestelle LST Local Standard Time Lt. Lieutenant LT Less than; Local Time; Linear triangulation LTAP Long-Term Acquisition Plan (USGS) LTC Light transfer characteristics LTE Less than or equal LTER Long Term Ecological Research project LTTM Longterm Terrain Model LTO Land Title Office (New Zealand) LTU Line Transfer Unit LU Land units L/U Land use LUCCAS Land Use and Cover Change Analysis System (Pacific Meridian Resources) LUDA Land Use and Data Analysis (program); Land use development assistance LU/LC (or LULC) Land use, land cover LUM Limited update, monoscopic LUMIS Land Use Management Information System (JPL software) LUMS Land Use Management System LUNHA Land Use History of North America (USGS) LUNR Land Use and Natural Resource Information System (N.Y.) LUPIN Land Use Planning Information Network (CERES) LUS Limited update, stereo LUST Leaking underground storage tank LUT Land utilization type LVAB-W Landesvermessungsamt Baden-Wurttemberg LVAN-W Landesvermessungsamt Nordrhein-Westfalen LVAR-P Landesvermessungsamt Rheinland-Pfalz LVAS Landesvermessungsamt des Saarlandes LVAS-H Landesvermessungsamt Schleswig-Holstein LVVWD Las Vegas Valley Water District lW lichte Weite LWC Louisville Water Company LWD Littoral Warfare Data m Meter m. mittlere M Maestrale, Magistrale, Meridionalis, Meridialis, Mezzodi = South M. Mile; mille (1,000); Mitte MA Mean annual; Maritime Administration; Massachusetts; Manitoba MAC Machine automation control; Mapping Applications Center (USGS); Mineralogical Assn. of Canada; Mapping Advisory Committee; Mobile Arctic caisson MACA Ministerio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios (Bolivia) MAD Management Areas Database; Metro Area Disaster GIS (Oregon) MADAR Maps and Data at Ryerson [University} MADGIC Maps, Data and Government Information Centre (Trent University); Maps, Academic Data, Geographic Information Centre (Univ. of Calgary) MADM Multiple attributes decision-making MAF Master address file MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (U.K.) MAFI Magyar Allami Foldtani Intezet = Hungarian Geological Inst. MAG Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia (Costa Rica, Ecuador) MAGE Map Authoring and Generalisation Expert MAGERT Map and Geography Round Table (ALA) MAGI Maryland Automated Geographic Information System MAGIC Map and Geographic Information Center (Univ. of Conn. and Univ. of New Mexico); Map and Geospatial Information Collection (Dalhousie University Library) MAGIS Maps, Aerials and GIS (Univ. of Hawaii Library, Manoa) MAGSAT Magnetic Field Satellite (U.S.) MAIGIS Multi-Agency Internet Geographic Information Service MALSCE Massachusetts Assn. of Land Surveyors and Civil Engineers MAP Map Analysis Package; Mapping Alliance Program (Space Imaging, Inc.); Market Area Planner (Huff) MAPA Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacion (Spain) MAPCAT Map catalog MAPDS Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Direccion de Suelos (Uruguay) MAPIS Map Products Information System MaPKBS Map Projection Knowledge-based System MAPPS Management Assn. for Private Photogrammetric Surveyors; Maps, Aerial Photo and Publication System MAPS Mississippi Assn. of Professional Surveyors; Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellite M.A.P.S. Microcomputer-based Automated Projection System MAPSAT Mapping Satellite (U.S.) MAR Mean annual runoff MARAD Maritime Administration (US) MARC Machine Readable Cataloging (LC); Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (Murray State Univ., KY) MARIS Mississippi Automated Resource Information System MARLS Missouri Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors; Montana Assn. of Registered Land Surveyors MARS Monitoring Agriculture with Remote Sensing (European Union) MAS Millimeterwave Atmospheric Sounder MASC Map Activity Support Contract Mass. Massachusetts MASTER MODIS/ASTER Airborn Simulator (NASA) Mat-Su Matanuska-Susitna Borough (Alaska) MAT Medial-axis transformation MATLAB Matrix Laboratory MAW Metropolitan area window mB Millibar MB Megabyte MBMG Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology MBPS Million bits per second MBR Minimum bounding rectangle MC Mapping Center MC&G Mapping, Charting & Geodesy (U.S. Dept. of Defense) MCAS Marine Corps Air Station MCB Marke Carl Bauer = Carl Bauer Brand MCD Minor civil division; Major civil division MCDM Multi-criteria decision-making MCE Mapping and Charting Establishment (Canada) MCG Map Curators' Group MCGA Monochrome/Color Graphics Adapter McIDAS Map-computer Interactive Data Access System MCIS Maps and Chart Information System MCMC Mid-continent Mapping Center (USGS) MCO Mars Climate Orbiter MCS Machine control system; Master Control Station Md. Maryland MD Maryland; Metadata MDA Monochrome Display Adapter; MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates, Inc. MDAS Multispectral Data Analysis System (Bendix Corp.) MDC Div. de la Cartographie (Morocco) MDD Mineral Deposits Div., Geological Assn. of Canada MDG Direction de la Geologie (Morroco) MDGLS Missouri Div. of Geology and Land Survey MDL Measurement Devices Ltd.; MicroStation Development Language (Bentley Systems) MDLPP Mason-Dixon Line Preservation Partnership M.D.M. Mount Diablo Meridian MDOT Michigan Dept. of Transportation MDP Master Data Processor MDR Minimum Data Recorder MDS Metadata standards; Multi-dimensional scaling MDSHS Mount Diablo Surveyors Historical Society MDSD Mono-Digitizer Stereo-Digitizer MDOT Michigan Dept. of Transportation MDT Mountain Daylight Time MDTC Div. de la Topographie et de la Cartographie (Mauritania) Me. Maine M.E. Military Engineer; Mining Engineer ME Maine; Monoscopic Extraction MECM Missao de Estudos Cartograficos de Macao MEDEA Measurements of Earth Data for Environmental Analysis (U.S.) MEDS Minimum essential data set MEGDR Mission Experimental Gridded Data Record(s) MEGRIN Multipurpose European Ground Related Information Network mehr-gesch. mehrgeschossig MEI Maps Etc. Inc. MEIS Multispectral Electrooptical Imaging Sensor MEM Ministry of Energy and Minerals (Tanzania) MEMPR Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (British Columbia) MENR Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (Trinidad and Tobago) MEO Medium Earth orbit MEOW Mono-Extraction Orthophoto Workstation MER Minist`ere de l'Energie et des Ressources (Quebec) MERES Mineral and Energy Resources Exploration Satellite (Japan) MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERRA Michigan Energy and Resources Research Association MESSR Multispectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer METSAT Meteorological Satellite MEWS Mono-Extraction Workstation MF Miscellaneous Field Studies Map(USGS) MFC Map Feature Coding MFGDP Manual of Federal Geographic Data Products MFLOPS Million Floating Points Operations Per Second MFS Maine Forest Service MGB Mississippi Bureau of Geology MGE Microstation GIS Environment (Intergraph); Modular GIS Environment MGG Marine Geology and Geophysics Report MGIS Micro Geographic Information System MGRS Military Grid Reference System MGS Maine Geological Survey; Maryland Geological Survey; Minnesota Geological Survey; Mars Global Surveyor (satellite) MGSD Michigan Geological Survey Div. MGSSSR Ministerstvo Geologii SSSR MH Ministry of Housing (Bahrain) M.H. Meierhof = dairy farm MHAPO Minnesota Historical Aerial Photographs Online MHTD Missouri Highway and Transportation Dept. MHW Mean High Water MHz Megahertz Mi. Mile(s) MI Michigan; Military Intelligence; Miscellaneous Investigations (map) MIAS Multispectral Image Analysis System Mich. Michigan MIEM Minist`ere de l'Industrie et de Mines (Malagasy Republic) MIF Main Image File; MapInfo Interchange Format Mil. Military MIL Map and Imagery Laboratory (Univ. of Calif., Santa Barbara); Milli-inch (1 thousandth of an in.) MILSTRIP Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures (USDMA) MILUS Multiple Input Land Use System (JPL software) MIME MultiPurpose Internet Mail Extension Min. Minute Min. E. Mineral Engineer; Mining Engineer Minn. Minnesota MIO Map Information Office MIPS Map and Image Processing System; Million Instructions Per Second; Mini-Image Processing System MIRAGE Map Image Rendering Database for Geoscience (NRCan) MIS Management Information System; Map Information System MISR Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (NASA); Macaulay Institute for Soil Research Miss. Mississippi MITE Megapixel Imaging Technology MITES Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Survey MJH M.J. Harden Associates, Inc. ML Master Library MLA Multi-linear array MLC Minimal level cataloging (Library of Congress) MLHD Maximum likelihood (decision functions) MLLW Mean Lower Low Water MLMIC Minnesota Land Management Information Center MLMIS Minnesota Land Management Information System MLRA Major Land Resource Areas MLTA Maine Land Title Assn. MLW Mean low water MMKS Mjetve Mesimore Kulturore e Sportive "Hamid Shijaku" (Albania) MMOI Mathematical Mode of Inquiry MMQ Metric Map Questionnaire MMS Metropolitan Map Series; Minerals Management Service (U.S.); Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (U.S.) MMSD Metric Mapping Support Data MN Magnetic north; Mine; Minnesota Mn/DOT Minnesota Dept. of Transportation MNFS Minor frame synchronization MNR Ministry of Natural Resources (Ontario) MNS Multi-Navigator System (Brunton) Mo. Missouri MO Magnetic-optical disc; Member organization; Missouri; Model orientation MOA Minute of angle MoD Ministry of Defence MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (or Spectrometer) MODM Multiple objectives decision-making MODN Module name MOLA Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter MOLDS Inst. for Modernization of Land Data Systems MOMS Modular Optoelectric Multispectral Scanner Mont. Montana M.O.P. Ministerio de Obras Publicas MOPU Ministerio de Obras Publicas y Urbanismo (Spain) MoRAP Missouri Resource Assessment Partnership MOS Marine Observation Satellite; Multispectral Optoelectric Scanner MOSS Map Overlay and Statistical System MOST Moving Objects Spatio-Temporal MOUG Map Online Users Group MP Measuring point MPC Minnesota Population Center MPE Map Publishing Environment MPLIS Multipurpose land information system(s) Mpls. Minneapolis MPO Multiproduct operation; Metropolitan planning organizations MPP Multi-spectral scanner preprocessor MPRD Modified Proportional Radial Displacement MPRM Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources (Saudi Arabia) MPWUPH Ministry of Public Works, Urban Planning and Housing (Djibouti) MR Monoscopic revision MRAC Musee Royale de l'Afrique Centrale MRB Missouri River Basin MRBC Missouri River Basin Commission MRC Mississippi River Commission; Map Reference Code (USGS) MRD Mineral Resources Div. (Manitoba); Mineral Resources Dept. (Fiji); McCloud Ranger District MRDB Mapping Requirements Data Base System MRI Metadata Reference Information; Mediamark Research Inc. MRIB Marine Realms Information Bank MRIR Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer MRLA Major Land Resource Area MRLU Map Reproduction and Liaison Unit MRMS Maritime Resources Management Service MRO Mars Reconnnaissance Orbiter (NASA) MRS Multispectral Resource Sampler MrSID Multiresolution Seamless Image Database MRSA Major River Systems Analysis MRSH Marsh MRWS Monoscopic Revision Workstation ms. Manuscript MS Manuscript; Mean seasonal; Milli-second; Microsoft Corp.; Monochromatic Scanner; Mississippi MSA Metropolitan statistical area; Mineralogical Society of America; Maritime Safety Agency (Japan) MSC Map Society of California; Mapping Science Committee (NRC) MSD Mapping support data; Malawi Dept. of Surveys; Mauritius Survey Dept. MSDO Mapping Support District Office MS-DOS MicroSoft Disc Operating System MSE Mean square error MSEDB Mapping Sciences Education Data Base MSIA Mapping Sciences Inst., Australia MSIRI Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Inst. MSIS Map Separates Information System; Model State Information System MSL Mean sea level MSLS Maine Society of Land Surveyors MSP Multispectral photography .MSP Microsoft Paint format MSPE Missouri Society of Professional Engineers MSPS Michigan Society of Professional Surveyors; Minnesota Society of Professional Surveyors MSR Minimal Spatial Representation MSRN Michigan Spatial Reference Network MSRLS Michigan Society of Registered Land Surveyors MSS Multispectral Scanner; Maryland Society of Surveyors MST Mountain Standard Time MSTD Marine Science and Technology Division (Science Applications International Corporation) MSTS Map Separates Tracking System MSU Microwave Sounding Unit MSV Model and Scenario Visualization Mt. Mount; Mountain; Mont MT Mountain; Montana MTA Major Trading Areas (FCC) MTAE Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitutu (Turkey) MTC Ministerio de Transporte y Comunicaciones (Venezuela) MTF Modulation transfer function MTJ Mendocino Triple Junction MTLT Minimum Total Length Triangulation Mtn. Mountain MTO Ministry of Transportation (Ontario) MTP MSS Telemetry Processor MTPE Mission to Planet Earth (NASA) MTS Mountains; Maine Technical Source MTSAT Multi-Functional Transport Satellite (Japan) MTT Mobile Training Teams (USDMA) MTU Magnetic tape unit MUAC Map Users Advisory Committee (ACMLA) MUID Map Unit ID (Identification) MUIR Map Unit Interpretations Record (US NRCS) MURB Minister fur Umwelt, Raumordnung und Bauwesen (Saarland) MVE Multi-View Editor MVI Mapping for the Visually Impaired MVP Moving vessel profiler MW Megawatt M.W. Mittelwasser MWDI Master Water Data Index MWF Map Window File MWRTK Midwest Real Time Kinematic MWT Minimum Weight Triangulation MyCOE My Country, Our Earth n. nordlich = northern N Norden = North N. North NA National Archives; National Atlas; Not available; Not applicable NABCI North American Bird Conservation Initiative NABGG National Assn. for Black Geologists and Geophysicists NAC NASA Advisory Council NACIS North American Cartographic Information Society = Sociedad de Informacion Cartografica Norte Americana NACo National Assn. of Counties NACS National Assn. of County Surveyors NAD North American Datum NAD 27 North American Datum of 1927 NAD 83 North American Datum of 1983 NADCON North American Datum Conversion (NGS) NADEC National Atlas Development Centre (Ghana) NADO National Assn. of Development Organizations NAFSMA National Assn. of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies NAGT National Assn. of Geoscience Teachers NAHSC National Automated Highway System Consortium NAICS North American Industry Classification System NAIP National Agriculture Imagery Program (USDA) NAIS National Atlas Information Service (Canada) NALMS North American Lake Management Society NALS Nevada Assn. of Land Surveyors NAMCOR National Petroleum Corporation of Namibia NAO North Atlantic Oscillation NAP Northern Affairs Program (Canada) NAPA National Academy of Public Administration NAPL National Air Photo Library (Canada) NAPP National Aerial Photography Program (U.S.) NARA National Archives and Records Administration (U.S.) NARC National Association of Regional Councils NARL Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (Barrow, Alaska) NARS National Archives and Records Service (U.S.) NARSA National Advanced Remote Sensing Applications Program NAS National Academy of Sciences (U.S.); National Airspace System (U.S.) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (U.S.) NASBOG National Assn. of State Boards of Geology NASDA National Space Development Agency (Japan) NASS National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA) NAST NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed NATM New Austrian Tunnelling Method NATMAP Div. of National Mapping (Australia) NATMO Indian National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organization NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NAUS National Atlas of the United States NAVD North American Vertical Datum NAVD 88 North American Vertical Datum 1988 NAVOCEANO Naval Oceanographic Office (U.S.) NavSol Navigation Solutions LLC Navtech Navigation Technology Seminars Inc. NAVTECH Navigation Technologies Corp. NAWQUA National Water Quality Assessment (Program, USGS) NB Narrow band; New Brunswick Nbf Nebenbahnhof NBFU National Board of Fire Underwriters Nbg. Nurnberg NBI National Bridge Inventory (US) NBII National Biological Information Infrastructure NBMG Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology NBS National Biological Survey (U.S.); National Bureau of Standards (U.S.); National Board of Survey = Maanmittaushallitus (Finland) NBSM National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (China) NBTR Narrow band tape record(s or -er) NC North Carolina N.C. North Carolina NCAP National Collection of Aerial Photographs NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research (U.S.) NCARB National Council of Architectural Registration Boards NCC National Cartographic Centre (Iran); National Commission for Cartography (Canada) NCDCDS National Committee for Digital Cartographic Standards (U.S.) NCDOT North Carolina Dept. of Transportation NCDS National Cartographic Data Standard NCDSB National Cartographic Data Standard Base NCE North Coast Engineering NCEE National Council of Engineering Examiners NCEES National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (US) NCGA National Computer Graphics Assn. NCGE National Council for Geographic Education NCGIA National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis NCGMP National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (US) NC&GS National Charting & Geodetic Survey NCGS North Carolina Geological Survey NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCIC National Cartographic Information Center (U.S.) NCITS National Committee for Information Technology Standards (USA) NCMOC Naval Central Meteorology and Oceanography Center (US) NCMP National Coastal Mapping Program (USCE) NCR National Capital Region NCRDS National Coal Resources Data System NCRST National Consortia on Remote Sensing in Transportation NCRST-F National Consortia on Remote Sensing in Transportation - (Flows) NCS National Cartographic Standards NCSA National Center for Supercomputer Applications NCSD Nebraska Conservation and Survey Div. NCSME Service des Mines et de l'Energie (New Caledonia) NCSS North Carolina Society of Surveyors ND North Dakota N.D. North Dakota N-D N-dimensional NDAR National Directory of Australian Resources NDCDB National Digital Cartographic Data Base (USGS) NDCS National Digital Cartographic Standards NDF Nevada Division of Forestry NDG Northern Development Group Inc. NDGPS National Differential GPS Network (or System) (US); Nationwide Differential GPS NDGS North Dakota Geological Survey NDI Nautical Data International Inc. NDIIPP National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (Library of Congress) NDL National Digital Library (Library of Congress) NDLS Nauru Directorate of Lands and Survey NDNRC Nevada Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation NDOT Nevada Dept. of Transportation NDS National Decision Systems NDSL Nevada Division of State Lands NDSPLS North Dakota Society of Professional Land Surveyors NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NE Northeast; Nebraska Neb. Nebraska NEAR Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous NED National Elevation Dataset (earlier sometimes called Database)(USGS) NE[Delta] Exoatmospheric Noise Equivalent Reflectances NEDSS National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (US) NEHRP National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program NEIC National Earthquake Information Center (USGS) NEIS National Earthquake Information Service NEL National Exploitation Laboratory NEMO North East Map Organization NEPAN National Environmental Policy Act; National Environmental Protection Act NERDD Networked Electronic Report & Document Distribution NERL North East Research Libraries (US) NES New England Section (ACSM) NESDIS National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (US) NESACSM New England Section ACSM NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service NESS National Environmental Satellite Service NESTA National Earth Science Teachers Assn. NET New Electronic Titles (US GPO) NETR Nationwide Environmental Title Research, LLC Nev. Nevada NEXRAD Next Generation Weather Radar NF Newfoundland NFAP National Forest Applications Program NFDRS National Fire Danger Rating System NFFL National Forest Fire Laboratory NFIP National Flood Insurance Program (U.S.) NFIRA National Flood Insurance Reform Act (U.S.) NFIS National Forest Information System Nfld. Newfoundland NFS National Forest Service (USA); National Forest System; Network File System NFWS National Fish and Wildlife Service (USA) N.G. Nicholas Guerard NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NGBN National Gravity Base Net (USA) NGCS National Geodetic and Cartographic Service (Vietnam) NGDA National Geospatial Digital Archive (Library of Congress) NGDC National Geophysical Data Center (USA); National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse NGDF National Geospatial Data Files; National Geospatial Data Framework (UK) NGES Northrup Grumman Electronic Systems NGGI National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (Australia) NGI National Geography Inst. = Kungnip Chiriwon (S. Korea) NGIC National Geodetic Information Center NGMA National Geoscience Mapping Agency (Australia) NGMBD National Geologic Map Database (USGS) NGPRP Northern Great Plains Resource Program NGRI National Geophysical Research Inst. (India) NGRS National Geodetic Reference System (USA) NGS National Geographic Society (USA); National Geodetic Survey (U.S.) NGSP National Geodetic Satellite Program NGTOC National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (USGS) NGU Norges Geologiske Undersokelse NGVD National Geodetic Vertical Datum NGVD29 National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 NGWIC National Ground Water Information Center NH New Hampshire N.H. New Hampshire; New Haven NHAP National High Altitude Photography (program) NHC National Hurricane Center (USA) NHD National Hydrography Dataset (USGS) NHGIS National Historical Geographic Information System (MPC) NHLSA New Hampshire Land Surveyors Assn. NHPN National Highway Planning Network (FHWA) NHS National Highway System; National Height System (USA); National Household Survey (Canada) NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (USA) NI Natturfraedistofnun Islands NICMOS Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (US) NII National Information Infrastructure NIIGA Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Geologii Artiki (U.S.S.R.) NILS National Integrated Land System (US BLM) NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency (USA) NIMSA National Interest Mapping Service Agreement (UK) NIP National Imagery Project (NRCan) NIPR National Inst. for Polar Research (Japan) NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample (AHCPR) NIST National Inst. of Standards and Technology (USA) NITF National Imagery Transmission Format NIUA National Inst. of Urban Affairs (India) NIWAR National Inst. of Water and Atmosphere Ltd. (New Zealand) NJ New Jersey N.J. New Jersey NJDEP New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection NJDOT New Jersey Dept. of Transportation NJGIN New Jersey Geographic Information Network NJGS New Jersey Geological Survey NJIT New Jersey Institute of Technology NJMapp New Jersey Mapping Assistance Partnership Program NJSPLS New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors NJSPS New Jersey Society of Professional Surveyors NLA National Land Agency (Japan); National Library of Australia NLAPS National Landsat Archive Production Sytem (USGS) NLCD National Land Cover Dataset (USGS & USEPA) NLD National Levee Database (UCACE) NLDAS North American Land Data Assimilation System (NASA) NLIS National Land Information Service (UK) NLL Northern Limit Line (Korea) NLQ Near-letter quality NLRB National Level Bibliographic Record NLUIS Northern Land Use Information Series (Canada) NM New Mexico NMAS National Map Accuracy Standard(s) NMASM New Mexico Assn. of Surveyors and Mappers NMB National Mapping Bureau (Papua New Guinea) NMBM&MR New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources NMC National Map Collection (Canada) NMCC National Map Collection of Canada NMD National Mapping Div. (USGS) NMDOT New Mexico Dept. of Transportation NMF Network Mapping Facilities (Firm) NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service (U.S.) NMMC National Map Managers Conference NMP National Mapping Program (USGS) NNE North northeast NNSS Navy Navigational Satellite System NNW North north west no nordostwarts NO Nordosten = northeast N.O. New Orleans NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (U.S.) NOBS Northern Ohio Bibliographic Society NOD New Orleans District NOMS Northern Ohio Map Society NOPPA National Ocean Pollution Protection Act NORTAD North American Transportation Atlas Data; North American Transportation Database NOS National Ocean Service (U.S.); National Ocean Survey (U.S.) NOSC National Oceans Systems Center NOSS National Oceanographic Satellite System (U.S.) NP Norsk Polarinstitutt NPF Norsk Petroleums-forening = Norwegian Petroleum Society NPIC National Photographic Interpretation Center (U.S.) NPMS National Pipeline Mapping System (US) NPOC Naval Polar Oceanographic Center (U.S.) NPOESS National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites NPP NOOESS Preparatory Project NPR National Performance Review (U.S.); Non-photorealistic rendering NPRA National Petroleum Reserve (Alaska) NPR-A National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska NPS National Park Service (U.S.); Nonpoint source Nr. Nummer = number NRA National Recreation Area; NASA Radarsat Program NRC National Research Council; Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.) NRCan Natural Resources Canada NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA) NRCT National Resources Council of Thailand NRDD Natural Resources Data Directory (NSW); National Resources Data Directory (Australia) NRI National Resources Inventory (SCS) NRIC National Resource Information Centre (Australia); Natural Resources Information Council NRIS National Resource Information System NRN National Road Network NRO National Reconnaissance Office (U.S.) NRS National Reference System (U.S.) NRSA National Remote Sensing Agency (India) NRSC National Remote Sensing Centre (U.K.) NRSL Northern Remote Sensing Laboratory (Univ. of Alaska) NRT Navigation Response Team (US Coast Survey) NRVIS Natural Resources and Values Information System (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) NRWS Narrows NS Nova Scotia; Not sprinklered NSA National Security Agency NSAPI Netscape Server Application Programming Interface NSB North Slope Borough (Alaska) NSC National Space Council (U.S.); National Security Council (U.S.); National Society of Cartographers NSD Nepal Survey Dept. NSDC National Spatial Data Council (U.S.) NSDI National Spatial Data Infrastructure; National Spatial Data Information NSDNR Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources NSF National Science Foundation (U.S.) NSGIC National States Geographic Information Council NSI Natural Scale Indicator NSIF NATO Secondary Image Format NSKV Norges Sjokartverk NSLAB Niedersachsisches Landesamt fur Bodenforschung NSLVA Niedersachsisches Landesverwaltungsamt NSN National Satellite Network NSPE National Society of Professional Engineers NSPS National Society of Professional Surveyors NSRFC Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corp. NSRS National Spatial Reference System (NOAA) NSS National Soil Survey (Ireland); National Speleological Society; Navigational Safety System NSSDA National Standard for Spatial Database Accuracy NSTB National Satellite Test Bed NSTL National Space Technology Laboratory NSW New South Wales NTAD National Transportation Atlas Data (or Database(s) -- U.S. Bureau of Transportation) NTD National Topographic Database (OS) NTDB National Topographic Data Base (Canada) NTDL Northern Territory Dept. of Lands (Australia) NTDME Dept. of Mines and Energy (Northern Territory, Australia) NTF National Transfer Format (U.K.) NTIS National Technical Information Service (U.S.) NTM Notice to Mariners NTPS National Transportation Planning System NTS National Topographic Series (Canada); National Topographic System (Canada); Navigation Technology Satellite; Nevada Test Site NTSB National Transportation Safety Board (U.S.) NUC National Union Catalog NUC CM National Union Catalog, Cartographic Material NURE National Uranium Resources Evaluation (program) NV Nevada NVCA Nottawasaga Valley Conservation Authority NVCN National Vertical Control Network (U.S.) NVDI Normalized difference vegetation index nw nordwestlich NW Northwest; Nordwesten N.W. Niedrigwasser NWA National Water Alliance NWFP North West Frontier Province (Pakistan) NWI National Wetlands Inventory (USFWS); National Wilderness Inventory (Australia) NWS National Weather Service (NOAA) NWSCA National Water and Soil Conservation Authority (New Zealand) NWWS North West Wetlands Survey NY New York N.Y. New York N.Y.C. New York City NYPL New York Public Library NYSAPLS New York State Assn. of Professional Land Surveyors NYSDOT New York State Dept. of Transportation NYSDT New York State Dept. of Transportation NYSGS New York Geological State Geological Survey NZ New Zealand N.Z. New Zealand NZFS New Zealand Forest Service NZGD New Zealand Geophysics Div. NZGS New Zealand Geological Survey NZMG New Zealand Map Grid NZMS New Zealand Dept. of Lands and Survey NZOI New Zealand Oceanographic Inst. NZSB New Zealand Soil Survey o ostwarts O Osten, Orientalis, Orien, Oriente, Orientis = East OAB Operational advisory broadcasts OAC Osterreichischer Automobil Club OACES Oregon Association of County Engineers and Surveyors OACH Office of the Assistant Chief Hydrologist OADCES On-line Aerotriangulation Data Collection and Editing System OAdW Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften OAF Optimal aerial forecasting OALS Office of Arid Lands Studies OAMTC Osterreichischer Automobil-, Motorrad- und Touring-Club OAS Orbit Adjustment Subsystem; Organization of American States OASIS Oceanic and Atmospheric Scientific Information System Obj. Objekt OBM Ontario Base Map; Ontario Basic Mapping Program OBRP Object representation OBS Office of Biological Services OC Oil and Gas Investigation Chart (USGS) OCAP Ohio Capability Analysis Project OC-CLSA Orange County Chapter of the California Land Surveyor's Assn. OCE Office of the Chief of Engineers OCH Office of the Chief Hydrologist OCL Object Constraint Language OCLC Ohio College Library Center OCR Optical Character Recognition; Optical Character Reader OCRS Ontario Centre for Remote Sensing OCS Office of Cadastral Survey (BLM); Operational Control System; Outer Continental Shelf; Ocean Color Scanner OCTS Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner OCUL Ontario Council of University Libraries OCX Object Component eXtension OD Optical disc; Outside diameter ODAIPR Open Data Access and Intellectual Property Rights (ICA) ODBC Operational Database Connectivity ODC Open Data Consortium ODE Open development environment ODF Oregon Dept. of Forestry ODFW Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife ODGMI Oregon State Dept. of Minerals and Mineral Industries ODGS Ohio Div. of Geological Survey ODNR Ohio Dept. of Natural Resources ODOP Ohio Digital Orthophotography Project ODOT Ohio Dept. of Transportation; Oregon Dept. of Transportation OEEPE Organisation europeene d'etudes en photogrammetrie experimentale OESA Office of Earth Science Applications OF Open file; Open-file OFAT Ontario Flow Assessment Techniques Offn. Offnung = aperture, opening OFIPLAN Oficina de Planificacion Nacional (Costa Rica) OFR Open file report; Open-file report OFSS Open-file Services Section OGC Open GIS Consortium, Inc.; Oil and Gas Commission (British Columbia) OGDE Ontario Geographic Data Exchange OGDI Open Geospatial Datastore Interface OGIC Oregon Geographic Information Council OGIS Open GIS; Office of Geographic Information Systems (New Jersey) OGRIP Ohio Geographically Referenced Information Program OGS Ontario Geological Survey; Oklahoma Geological Survey OGW Office of Ground Water OGWP Office of Ground Water Protection (EPA) OH Ohio OHA Officeof Hawaiian Affairs OHW Office of Hazardous Wastes Hydrology OIA Office of International Activities OICC Ontario Institute of Chartered Cartographers OIG Office of International Geology OIH Office of International Hydrology OII European Commission's Open Information Interchange OILT Oil tank farm OIR-GIS Office for Information Resources-GIS Services Division (Tennessee) OIS Obstruction Identification Surfaces OK Okonomisk kart (Norway); Osterreichische Karte; Oklahoma OKAGE Oklahoma Alliance for Geographic Education OLAP Online analytical processing OLE Object Linking/Embedding OLID Ontario Land Information Directory OLS Operational Linescan (or Line Scan) imaging system; Ordinary Least Squares; Operational Line Scanner (DMSP) OM Oil and Gas Investigation Map (USGS) OMG Open Management Group OMNR Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources OMO Other mapping organization OMPS Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite OMTC Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications ON Ontario; Original negative ONC Operational Navigation Chart ONERN Oficina Nacional de Evaluacion de Recursos Naturales (Peru) ONIG Office Nationale de la Geologie (Algeria) ONPR Office of National Petroleum Reserve (USGS) ONSWG Open Navigation Surface Working Group Ont. Ontario OO Object-Orientation OOPEC Office for Official Publications of the European Communities OOSI Osterreichisches Ost- und Sudosteuropa-Institut OPAC Online public access catalog; online patron access catalog OPAL Obscurant penetrating autosynchronous Lidar OPCS Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (U.K.) OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEDS Outside Plant Engineering Design System (ESRI, Bell South) OPIS Ocean Planning Information System OPL Oilfield Publications Limited OPP Operational Positional Procedure OPR Office of Planning and Research OPS Optical sensor(s) OPUS Online Positioning User Service (US NGS); Online Processing User Service OR Oregon ORMAP Oregon Map (organization) OQ Orthophoto quadrangle ORBIMAGE Orbital Imaging Corp. Ore. Oregon ORH Office of the Regional Hydrologist ORID Ortho Rectified Image Data ORN Ontario Road Network ORRH Office of the Regional Research Hydrologist ORRI Orthorectified radar imagery ORSER Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (Penn. State Univ.) ORSTOM Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre Mer OS Ordnance Survey (U.K.); Object space; Operating System OSBEELS Oregon State Board of Examiners for Engineering and Land Surveying OSCAR Online Satellite Catalog and Request System (NOAA) OSD Overseas Surveys Directorate (U.K.); Office of the Secretary of Defense (U.S.); On-screen display OSDA Oregon State Dept. of Agriculture OSDL Oregon Spatial Data Library OSEC Ocean Systems Engineering Corp. OSECO Ogden Surveying Equipment Company OSEDA Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis (Missouri) OSFD Oregon State Forestry Dept. OSGB Ordnance Survey (U.K.) OSI Ordnance Survey of Ireland; Open Systems Interconnect model; Open Systems Interconnection OSIP Operational Satellite Improvement Program OSLS Oklahoma Society of Land Surveyors OSM Office of Surface Mining; Open Street Map OSNI Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland OSOA Optimal Statistical Objective Analysis OSP Office of State Planning OSPE Ohio Society of Professional Engineers OSS Office of Strategic Services (U.S.) OSSI Optronic Sensor for Stereo Imagery OSSIM Open Source Software Image Map (ImageLinks) OSTA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (NASA) OSTF Ordnance Survey Transfer Format OSTZ Osterreichisches Statistisches Zentralamt OSU Oregon State University OSW Office of Saline Water; Office of Surface Water OTA Office of Technology Assessment OTC Over-the-counter; Office for Topography and Cartography (Tunisia) OTF On-the-fly OTH Over the horizon OTHT Over the horizon targeting O.U. Open under OUCLS Ontario Universities' Library Cooperative System OUO Official use only OVN Optical visible near-infrared OW Oil well OWDC Office of Water Data Coordination OWRD Oregon Water Resources Dept. OWRR Office of Water Resources and Research OWRT Office of Water Research and Technology OWS OGC Web Services P Precision; Ponente = West Pa. Pennsylvania PA Pennsylvania PAA Priority abatement areas; Provincial Archives of Alberta PAAD Program Acronyms, Abbreviations and Definitions PAC Public Archives of Canada; Photo Annotation/Classification; Publications Advisory Committee (WAML) PACOG Pueblo Area Council of Governments PACON Pacific Congress on Marine Science and Technology PAD Position Aware Device PADCO Planning and Development Cooperative International PAGES Program for the Adjustment of GPS Ephemeris (NGS) PAGIS Protected Area Geographic Information System (NOAA); Planning and Geographic Information Systems (Hawaii); Pulaski (County, Ark.) Area Geographic Information System PAI Pacific Air Industries PAIGH Pan-American Inst. of Geography and History PAL Prime agricultural lands PALIS Ponds and Lakes Information System PAM Port-A-Meter; Point access methods PAN Polska Akademia Nauk Pan-STARRS Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System PAPS Pooled Analytical Plotter System PARC Palo Alto Research Center (Calif.) PAS Pacific Aerial Surveys PASDA Pennsylvania Spatial Data Access system PASP Planning and Analysis Section PASS Precision Aerial Survey System (3Di) PASSIA Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs PAT Polygon Attribute Table PAVE Package for Analysis and Visualization of Environmental Data Pbf Personenbahnhof = Passenger railway station PBM Portable Bitmap (format) PBO Plate Boundary Observatory; Performance-based organization PBS Primary Base Series (USFS) PC Personal Computer; Principal components PCA Principal components analysis PCC Professional competency credit; Program for Cooperative Cataloging (Library of Congress) PCD Practical Cartography Day PC-DOS Personal Computer-Disc Operating System PCGN Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use PCH Professional competency hour; Pacific Coast Highway (Calif.) PCLI Independent political entity (republic) P-Code Precise code; Protected code PCS POS Computer System PCT Pacific Coast Trail .PCX PC Paintbrush Export Format PD Precision digitizing; Publications Div. (USGS) PDA Personal digital assistant; Portable data access P&DC Printing & Distribution Center PDEP Pennsylvania Dept. of Environmental Projection PDF Platform Data File; Portable Document Format PDH Professional development hour PDL Page Description Language; Positioning Data Link (Pacific Crest Corp.) PDOP Position dilution of precision PDQ Public Data Queries, Inc. PDR Preliminary Design Review (U.S. government) PDS Photogrammetric Data Services PDT Pacific Daylight Time; Precision digitizing table; Pliable Display Technology PDU Professional development unit PDWS Precision digitizing workstation P.E. Photogrammetric Engineer; Professional Engineer PECG Professional Engineers in California Government PEN Peninsula Penn. Pennsylvania Pers. Personen PE&RS Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (journal) PES Post enumeration survey Pf. Pfeiler PFAS Pennsylvania Facility Analysis System (PDEP) PFLP Point-feature label placement PFM Pure File Magic (format) PGD Personal Geodatabase(s) PGM Permanent ground monument; Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen; Portable Grayscale Map .PGM Portable Graymap (format) PGML Precision Graphics Markup Language PG/S Product Generation Segment P.H. Power house PHC Probable hydrologic consequences PHIGS Programmer Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System Philada. Philadelphia Phillips Phillips, P.L. List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress PHODIS Photogrammetric Image Processing System (Carl Zeiss Inc.) PI Pseudo intelligence; Photo interpretation PIC Public Information Center .PIC Lotus 1-2-3 Picture Format PICA Project Integrated Catalogue Automation PICG Programme International de Correlation Geologique PICS Pacific Institute of Cartographers Society PID Photoionization detector; Permanent station identifier PIDL Polygon ID left PIDR Polygon ID right PIER Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk PIG Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny (Poland) PIMMA Pipeline Integrity Management Mapping Application (RSPA) PIN Parcel identification number PIO Public Inquiries Office (USGS) PIOS Polygon Information Overlay System (ESRI) Pixel Picture element PK Peak PKM Penyiasatan Kajimbumi Malaysia; Professional Kansas Mapper PKS Peaks PL Programming language; Public law PLAT Plateau PLF Point Location File PLGR Precision lightweight GPS receiver PLI Precision Laser & Instrument, Inc. PLN Plain PLOT Plotting (software) PLQ Public land quadrangles (Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources) PLS Professional Land Surveyor PLSC Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado PLSO Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon; Professional Land Surveyors of Ohio PLSS Public Land Survey System (U.S.) P.M. Prime meridian PMA Production and Marketing Administration (USDA) PM/S Production Management Segment PMSA Primary metropolitan statistical area PMT Positive media transfer; Photomultiplier tube PND Pond PNDI Intermittent pond .PNG Portable Network Graphics (format) PNRC Pacific Northwest Regional Commission PNDS Ponds PNRS Preliminary Natural Resources Survey PNW Pacific Northwest PO Photogrammetric Operations; Post office P&O Plans & Operations POAM Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement POC Point of contact; Point of control POD Print-on-demand POES Polar-Orbiting Satellites (NOAA) POLYID Polygon identification number POS Point-of-scale; Position orientation systems; Position and Orientation System (Applanix) POS LV 220 Position and Orientation System for Land Vehicles 220 (Applanix) POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (UNIX) POTS Pan-only Triangulation System PP Proof plot; Proof plotter PPA Provincial Archives of Alberta PPB Parts per billion PPC Pocket PC PPDB Point Positioning Data Base PPGIS Public participation GIS PPL Populated place PPM Portable Pixelmap (format) PPMS Photogrammetry Production Monitoring System PPNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PPNM Pengarah Pemetaan Negara, Malaysia PPP Point-to-point (protocol account, for email connections) PPPG Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi PPS Performance Planning System; Precise Positioning Service; Photographic Processing System PPSS Precise Positioning Service Security Module PPWK Panstwowe Przedsiebiorstwo Wydawnictw Kartograficznych (Poland) PQ Province Quebec PR Photo revision; Precipitation Radar; Pattern recognition; Puerto Rico PRF Point response function; Pulse repetition frequency PRIM Primary Map (inventory) PRISM Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model PRO Public Record Office (U.K.) PROSIX Production System (USGS) PROSYS Production System--UNIX (USGS) PRSN Puget Reference Station Network PRS92 Philippines Reference System of 92 PS Plot Services; Point source; PostScript; Paleontological Society; Polar stereographic (projection); Professional Surveyor (journal) PSA Paciulli, Simmons & Associates Ltd. PSAN Professional Surveyors Assn. of Nebraska PSCOG Puget Sound Council of Governments PSD Perceived spatial dispersions; Programme des services de depot (Canada) PSFM Professional Society for Forensic Mapping PSI Planning Systems, Inc. PSLS Pennsylvania Society of Land Surveyors PSM Professional Surveyor Magazine PSMA Professional Services Management Assn. PSPCI Professional Surveyors Publishing Company, Inc. PSPE Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers PSSC Public Service Satellite Corp. PST Pacific Standard Time PSU Primary sampling unit PT Point PTC Positive train control Pts. Points PUBGRF90 TIGER Geographic Reference File Names, 1990 PUG Petroleum Users Group (ESRI) PUMA Public Use Microdata Area (USBC) PUMS Public Use Micro-Data Sample PURL Persistent URL software PVT Position, Velocity and Time r. rechts R Range; Release; Ruin R&A OSS Research and Analysis Branch, Office of Strategic Services (U.S.) RA Rural area (Canada) RAC Related Accreditation Commission (ABET) RAD Rapid development application; Rules for Archival Description RADAR Radio Detecting and Ranging RADEF Road Administration Data Exchange Format RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (GPS) RALI Resource and Land Information; Resource and Land Investigations (program LIA) RALS Random access logical subfiles RAM Random access memory RAMS Regional Atmospheric Modelins System (ATMET) RAP Regional applications program RAPID Rapid Application Planning Implementation and Deployment (GeoData Solutions, Inc.) RAS Remote Analysis Systems RASC Royal Australian Survey Corps RASVY Royal Australian Survey Corps RATP Regie autonome des transports parisiens RBDS Radio broadcast data system RBE Rule-Base Engine RBI River Basin Investigation RBMS Relational Database Management System RBV Return Beam Vidicon RCA Radio Corporation of America RCC Regional census center RCH Reach RCIC Regional Coastal Information Center RCID Record ID (Identification) RCMRD Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (Kenya) RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RCS Research Camera System RCSSMRS Regional Centre for Services in Surveying and Mapping and Remote Sensing (Nairobi) RCWD Rancho California Water District R&D Research and development RDBMS Relational database management system RDC Regional Distribution Centre (Natural Resources Canada); Research Data Centre (Canada) RDGE Ridge RDI Resource Data International Inc. RDS Radio data system RDTS Research and Development Tracking System (BLM) RE Royal Engineers (U.K.) REA Rural Electrification Administration (U.S.) REAP Regional Environmental Applications Program (N. Dakota) REC Recompile(d) RE COMP Recompile RECOMP Recompilation RECON Retrospective conversion RECTAS Regional Center for Training in Aerospace Surveys (Nigeria) REDI Real Estate Data Inc.; Regional Economic Development Information System (San Diego, Calif.) REGIS Regional Geographic Information System (Kent County, Mich.) Reichsb Reichsbahn = National railroad Reichsbf Reichsbahnhof = National railroad station RELOS Regional Locator System REMS Regional Earth Modeling System (NASA) RepCode Representation Code RESCU Remote Emergency Satellite Cellular Unit RESTEC Remote Sensing Technology Center of Japan RET Rotterdamsche Electrische Tram RETSAM Review, Editing and Tagging Software for Automated Mapping REU Resources Evaluation Unit (USFS) Rev Revised REVPG Revision and Product Generation System RF Representative fraction; Reef; Radio frequency RfC Reference concentration RFPMG Radar Fixed Point Minigraphic RG Record group RGB Red-green-blue Rgbf Rangierbahnhof = Shunting station RGD Rijks Geologische Dienst (Netherlands) RGS Royal Geographical Society (U.K.) RH Regional hydrologist; Relative humidity RI Rhode Island R.I. Rhode Island RIAI Royal Inst. of Architects of Ireland RICS Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (U.K.) RIG RETSAM/Intergraph/Giant RIJP Rijksdienst voor de IJsselmeerpolders (Netherlands) RIN Realty Information Network RINEX Receiver Independent Exchange (GPS data format) RIP Raster Image Processing; Raster Image Processor; Road Inventory Program RIPS Remote Image Processing System; Remote Information Processing System RIRT Russian Inst. of Radionavigation and Time RIS Rapid Imaging Software; Retroreflector in Space RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer RiskMAP Risk Mapping and Planning (FEMA) RIT Rochester Institute of Technology RKSW Rocks in water RKW Rock in water RL Rannsoknastofnun Landbunadarins (Iceland) RLE Run-length encoded RM Replacement mapping RMA Reliability, Maintainability and Availability; Risk Management Agency (USDA) RMCA Road Map Collectors of America RMD Hans Rudolf Manual Deutsch RMIB Rudolf Muller International Booksellers RMK R.M. Keddal & Associates, Inc. RMMC Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (USGS) RMS Root mean square RMSE Root mean squared error RMSI Risk Management Solutions Inc. RMT Remotely measured target RNRC Renewable Natural Resources Center RNRF Renewable Natural Resources Foundation RO Range only RODOBRAS Comissao Especial construcao da Rodovia Belem-Brasilia ROM Read-Only Memory ROMANSE Road Management System for Europe ROMP Regional Observation Monitoring (well) Program ROP Raster operations processor ROW or R-O-W Right-of-way RP Reference point RPC Rational polynomial coefficient RPDS Rapids RPE Regional political ecology RPF Raster product format RPID Representation module ID RPIE Replacement Photographic Image Equipment RPMIS Real Property Management Information System RPP RBV Preprocessor RPU Remote positioning unit RQA River Quality Assessment RRDS Reduced Resolution Data Set RRH Regional Research Hydrologist R/S Remote sensing RSAC Remote Sensing Application Center (USFS) RSAL Remote Sensing Applications Laboratory (Univ. of Washington) RSC/TAMU Remote Sensing Center/Texas A&M Univ. RSGS Royal Scottish Geographical Society RSI Remotely Sensed Imagery; RADARSAT International Remote Sensing Institute (S.Dakota State Univ.); Research Systems, Inc. RSIP Remote Sensing and Image Processing RSPA Research and Special Programs Administration (USDOT) RSRP Remote Sensing Research Program (Univ. of Calif., Berkeley) RSRT Resort RSSC Remote Sensing Science Council RST Representation Style Table RSTF Remote Sensing Task Force RSTN Railroad station RSV Reservoir RSVP Resource reservation protocol RT Radio tower; Real time; Remote terminal RTA Regional Transport Authority (Chicago) RTCM Radio Technical Commission for Maritime (format) RTF Rich Text Format RT-GPS Real-time Differential GPS RTK Real-time kinematic; Right-to-Know Network RTN Real-time network RTP Real Time Positioning R&TS Research & Technical Standards RTSD Royal Thai Survey Dept. RTSI Routing Technology Software Inc. RTTK Real Time TurboKinematic (Allen Obsobne Associates) RTV Raster to vector RUIN Ruins RUIS San Diego Regional Urban Information System RUS Rest of the U.S. RV Reise- und Verkehrsverlag R-VIS Reality Visualization RVP Raster-to-vector processor; Radar Verification Programme s. Sculpsit (engraver); sudlich = southern, southerly S Secret; Store; Suden = south SA Selected availability; Selective availability; Signal accuracy; Situational awareness; Source acquisition S&A Sampling and analysis SAA Southern Appalachian Assessment (GIS database) SAC Sectional aeronautical chart; Satellite Applications Centre (CSIR); Statistical Area Classification (Canada) SACC Spatial Analysis Coordinating Committee SADIE System at Arizona for Digital Information Extraction SADL South Australia Dept. of Lands SADME South Australian Dept. of Mines and Energy SADR Spatial address SAE Survey Agro Ekonomi (Indonesia) SAF Society of American Foresters SAFOD San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth SAGA Short Arc Geodetic Adjustment (doppler) SAGEEP Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems SaGES Surveying and Geomatics Educators Society SAIC Science Applications International Corp. SAL Stanford Auxiliary Library SaLIS Surveying and Land Information Systems (journal) SALT Salina SAM Spatial access methods SAM Inc Surveying and Mapping, Inc. SAMAB Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (project) SAMSOG Surveying and Mapping Society of Georgia SANAIS South African Natural Areas Information System SANDAG San Diego Association of Governments SanGIS San Diego Geographic Information Source SAR Synthetic aperture radar SARSAT Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking System SARM Spatial Auto-Regressive Model SA/S Source Aquisition Segment SAST Scientific Assessment and Strategy Team (U.S.) SAT Small area triangulation SAW Spill analysis workstation; Surface acoustic wave SAZU Slovenske Akademije Znanosti in Umetnosti = Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Art SB Survey of Bangladesh SBAS School Boundary Analysis System (GeoSpatial Technologies) SBCDP Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program (U.S.) SBET Smoothed bed estimate of trajectory SBM Surveys and Mapping Branch (Manitoba) SBUV Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (spectrometer) S.B.V. Adm. Schulbucher-Verschleiss-Administration (Wien) sc. Sculpsit = engraver SC South Carolina S.C. South Carolina S/C Spacecraft S.C.A. Samuel Chapman Armstrong SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition SCAMP Southern California Aerial Mapping Project SCAN Surface Condition Analyzer (Surface Systems Inc) SCAR Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research SCB Statistika Centralbyran (Sweden) SCC Servico de Cartografia e Cadastro (Macao); SoftCopy Catalog (USDMA) SCCAMA Southern California Computer Aided Mapping Assn. SCD Source Control Drawing; Specification Control Drawing SCDOT South Carolina Dept. of Transportation SCEC Southern California Earthquake Center SCEP Servico Cartografico do Exercito (Portugal) SCERP Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy SCGIS Sedgwick County (Kans.) GIS Dept. SCGP Societe Canadienne des Geologique Petroliers SCGS South Carolina Geological Survey Sch School SCH School Scheit-elst. Scheitelstarke Schl. Schloss = castle SCM Supply chair management S.C.M. Sacrae Caesareae Majestatis = Holy Imperial Majesty (Holy Roman Emperor) SCO State Cartographer's Office (Wisconsin) SCOOP Schedule Control of Orthophoto Products SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment SCR Service Cartographique du Rwanda SCS Soil Conservation Service (USDA); Soft Copy Search (NIMA) SCSA Standard Consolidated Statistical Area; Soil Conservation Society of America SCSD Street Centerline Spatial Dataset SCSI Small computer system interface SCSMAC South Carolina State Mapping Advisory Committee SCSPLS South Carolina Society of Professional Land Surveyors sct. Sculpsit (engraver) SCTRAP South Carolina Toxic Risk Atlas Project sculp. Sculpsit (engraver) SCWRC South Carolina Water Resources Commission SD South Dakota S.D. South Dakota SDA Spalding DeDecker Associates, Inc.; Survey Document and Analysis (Univ. of California, Berkeley) SDB Spatial data base SDBMS Spatial database management system SDDOT South Dakota Dept. of Transportation SDDP Spatial Data Discovery Portal (Simon Fraser University ) SDE Spatial Database Engine (ESRI) SDES Spatial Data Exchange Standard SDG Survey Dept. Ghana SDGS South Dakota Geological Survey SDH Spatial data handling SDI Selected Dissemination of Information; Spatial data infrastructure SDL Survey Dept. of Libya SDLC Synchronous Data-Like Control; System Development Life Cycle SDMG Direction des Mines et de la Geologie (Senegal) SDMS Spatial Data Management System SDNR State Dept. of Natural Resources SDOI Spatial Data Organization Information SDPS Spatial Data Production System SDRW Societe de Developpement Regional pour la Wallonie SDS Swaziland Dept. of Surveys; Simplicial data structure SDSB Satellite Data Services Branch (NOAA) SDSFIE Spatial Data Standard for Facilities, Infrastructure and Environment (Tri-Services) SDSS Spatial decision support systems SDT Spatial Data Technologies (Firm) SDTP Spatial data transfer processor SDTS Spatial Data Transfer Standard SDUK Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge SDV Soil Data Viewer (NCRS) SE Southeast SEAMS Soil, Environmental, and Agricultural Management System (Univ. of Florida Dept. of Soil and Water) SEASAT Sea Satellite (U.S.) SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization SECFT Sociedad Espanola de Cartografia, Fotogrametria y Teledeteccion SECO Surveying Equipment Company (later: SECO Manufacturing) SEDAC Socioeconomic Data and Application Center SEDESOL Secretaria de Dessarrollo Social (Mexico) SEDIC Sudan Engineering & Digital Information Centre SEDMS Spatially Enabled Document Management System (Intergraph Corp.) SEDUE Secretaria de Desarrollo Urbano y Ecologia (Mexico) SEG Society of Economic Geologists; Society of Exploration Geophysicists S.E.O.P. Secretaria de Estado de Obras Publicas (Argentina) SEOS Stationary Earth Orbit Satellite SEPA State Environmental Protection Agency SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology SERIES Satellite Emission Range Inferred Earth Surveying Serna-
 geomin Servicio Nacional Geologia y Mineria (Chile) SES Standalone Edit Stations SESCPF Service d'Etude des Sols et de la Carte Pedalogique de France SESWG Solid Earth Science Working Group SEVIRI Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager SEWUG Southeastern Water Use Group S.F. San Francisco SfBWW Senator fur Bau- und Wonungswesen (Berlin) SFHA Special Flood Hazard Area SFQL Structured Full-text Query Language SfSU Senator fur Stadtentwicklung und Umweltschutz (Berlin) SGA Societe Geoscientifique de l'Atlantique; State Geologic Agencies; Service Geologique de l'Armee (Syria) SGB Service Geologique Belgique; Servicio geologico de Bolivia SGCB State Geodesy and Cartography Board (Mongolia) SGD Solar Geophysical Data (journal); Symbolized Graphic Data; Surveyor General's Dept. (South West Africa) SGE Servicio Geografico del Ejercito (Spain) SGG Service Geologique du Gabon SGpK Schweizerische Geophysikalische Kommission SGI Servicio Geologico d'Italia; Silicon Graphics workstation SGK Schweizerische Geologische Kommission SGL Service Geologique de Luxembourg SGM Servicio Geografico Militar (Uruguay) SGML Standard generalized markup language SGN Servicio Geologico Nacional (Argentina, Nicaragua); Service Geographique National (Laos) SGS Stanford Geological Survey SGtK Schweizerische Geotechnische Kommission SGU Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning; Savezna Geodetska Uprava (Yugoslavia) S.H. School house SHA State Highway Administration (Maryland) SHAPE Systematic Horizontol Adjustment of Positional Errors SHC Service hydrographique du Canada S.H.C. Surveyor, Hopkins County SHDSL Symmetric High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line SHEF Standard Hydrometeorological Exchange Format SHIPS Seizmic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound SHMP Seizmis Hazard Mapping Program SHN Servicio de Hidrografia Naval (Argentina) SHOALS Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne LiDAR System (or Survey -- USCE, Optech) SHOL Shoal SHOM Service Hydrographique et Ocenographique de la Marine (France) SHORAN Short-range Navigation (system) SHS Surveyors Historical Society SI Survey of India; Survey of Israel SIAC Spatial Information and Analysis Consortium SIAMS Ship Information and Management System SIAN Service d'information de l'atlas nationale (Canada) SIAT Special Image Annotation Tape SIB Solar Indices Bulletin SIC Standard Industrial Classification SICC Surveying Instrumentation and Coordinate Computation SICO Schonstedt Intstrument Company SICOM South Australian Spatial Information Committee SID Scanned Image Data; South Australian Spatial Information Directory SIF Standard Interchange Format (Intergraph) SIG Sistemas de informacion geografica; Special interest group SIGACE Special Interest Group for the Application of CD-ROM in Education SIGCAT Special Interest Group on CD-ROM Applications & Technology (U.S.) SIGGRAPH Special Interest Group on Graphics (ACM) SIGIT Swedish Institute for Geographic Information Technology SIGLIT Special Interest Group on Library Information Technology (U.S.) SIGS Solomon Islands Geological Survey SIGSA Sistemas de Informacion Geografica S.A. SILS Science Information and Libary Services (USGS) SIM Spatial interaction model SIMAG Spatial Information Management Advisory Group SIME Space Imaging Middle East SIP Scanner Interface Processor SIPES Society of Independent Professional Earth Scientists SIR Shuttle Imaging Radar; Space Imaging Radar (NASA); Surveys, Investigations and Research (USGS) SIRGAS Sistema de Referencia Geocentrico para las Americas SIRS Satellite Infrared Spectrometer SIRU Soils and Irrigation Research Unit (South Africa) SIS Standard Indexing System (DOD aerial photography); Spatial Information Systems (Computer Aided Development Corp.) SISMD Solomon Islands Survey and Mapping Div. SJSU San Jose State University SK Survey of Kenya; Slovenska Kartografia SKV Statens Kartverk (Norway) s.l. Sine loco = without place (of publication) SLA Special Libraries Assn.; Singapore Land Authority SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SLAGMD Special Libraries Assn. Geography & Map Div. SLAP Soils Landscape Analysis Project; Supplemental Low Altitude Photography SLAR Side-Looking Airborne Radar SLAT Spacecraft Location/Attitude Tape SLATS Statewide Landcover and Trees Study (Queensland DNR) SLC Scan Line Corrector (USGS) SLD Slope-Line Detection SLDI Sustainable Land Development International SLD29 Sea Level Datum of 1929 SLF Standard Linear Format SLG Symbolized Line Graph; Synthetic Line Generation SLGSD Sri Lanka Geological Survey Dept. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol SLM Structure line model SLNSW State Library of New South Wales SLP Slope(s) SLR Satellite Laser Ranging; Side-looking Radar SLSD Sri Lanka Survey Dept. SLSI Society of Land Surveyors of Iowa SLUPD Swaziland Land Use Planning Dept. sm Seemeile SM Survey Manual S.M. Saw mill SMA Schweizerische Meteorologische Anstalt SMAC State Mapping Advisory Committee (or Council) SMART Spatial Mapping Academic Research Tools SMASCH Specimen Management System for California Herbaria SMB Surveys and Mapping Branch (Manitoba) SMC Special Mapping Center SMCDG Small Map Collection Discussion Group (MAGERT) SMCRA surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act SMD Surveys and Mapping Div. (Tanzania) SME Softcopy Monoscopic Extraction; Society of Mining Engineers; society for Mining, Metalurgy, and Exploration, Inc. SMGE Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica SMI Surveyors Module International (Firm) SMIB Surveying and Mapping Inst. of Beijing SMIMS Single MIM-Based Integrated Mapping System (USBC) SMIRR Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer SMIPS Small Interactive Image Processing System SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer SMMT Submilimeter Telescope SMN Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (Argentina) SMOW Standard Mead Ocean Water SMS Synchronous Meteorological Satellite(s) SMSA Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol S/N Signal-to-Noise Ratio s.n. Sine nomine = without name (of publisher) SNARIL Social, Natural, and Agricultural Resources Information Laboratory (Univ. of Kentucky) SNB Service New Brunswick SNCF Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer (France) SND Street Network Database SNEP Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project SNF Superior National Forest (Minn.) SNGM Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile) SNI Siemens Nixdorf Information Systems AG SNID Startnode ID SNIG Sistema Nacional de Informacao Geografica = Portuguese National Infrastructure for Geographic Information SNLCS Servico Nacional de Levantamento e Conservacao de Solos (Brazil) SNM Square nautical miles SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNRIM Subcommittee on Natural Resources SNT Servicio Nacional de Turismo (Chile) SNWA Southern Nevada Water Authority SNWS Southern Nevada Water System SOAP Simple Object Access Protocal SoC Society of Cartographers SOCC Satellite Operations Control Center (NOAA) SODEMI Societe pour le Developpement Minier de la Cote d'Ivoire SOFRATOP Societe francais de travaux topographique et photogrammetriques Soft AT Softcopy Aerotriangulation SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Satellite SOI Survey of India SOLE Spatial On-Line Editor (ESRI) SOLSE Shuttle Ozone Limb Scanning Experiment SOM Space Oblique Mercator (projection); Spatial Object Manager (Smallworld) SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging SONATRACH Societe Nationale de Recherches de l'Explorations Mini`eres (Algeria) SOP Secretaria de Obras Publicas SORCE Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment SORSA Spatially-Oriented Referencing Systems Assn. SOS Survey Office System SOWR Sensitivity of Water Resources (global change hydrology program) SP Survey of Pakistan SPANS Spatial Analysis System (TYDAC Technologies) SPARRSO Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organisation SPB Space Planning Bureau SPC State Plane Coordinate (system or systems) SPC RE Survey Production Centre, Royal Engineers (U.K.) SPCS State Plane Coordinate System(s) SPDK Sistem Pengurusan Data Kadaster (Malaysia) SPEK Sistem Pengeshan Kualiti = Quality Assurance System (SPDK) SPID Sistem Pengurusan Imej Dokumen = Certified Plan Image Database (SPDK) SPIE Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers SPIN-2 Space Information-2 Meter Data (Russian Space Agency) SPIRE Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration SPO State Planning Office SPOEM Special Projects Office for Exploitation Modernization (USDMA) SPOT Syst`eme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (satellite) SPOTS Standard Programming of Telemetry Systems SPRI Scott Polar Research Inst. (Univ. of Cambridge) SPS Stichting Planbureau Suriname; Standard Positioning Service SP/S Source Preparation Segment SPT Strathclyde Passenger Transport SPVEA Superintendencia do Plano de Valorizac o Economica da Amazonia (Brazil) SQL Standard Query Language; Structured Query language SRBC Susquehanna River Basin Commission SRES OP Special Report on Emission Scenarios Open Process SRF Systematic reconnaissance flights SRI Spatial Reference Information SRMB Surveys and Resource Mapping Branch (British Columbia) SROM Spectro-radiometer for Ocean Monitoring SRTM Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRV Socialist Republic of Vietnam SSA Seismological Society of America SSCC SPAWAR Systems Center, Charleston SSD Singapore Survey Dept.; Sudan Survey Dept. SSDAN Social Science Data Analysis Network (University of Michigan) SSE South Southeast SSEW Soil Survey of England and Wales SSEOP Space Shuttle Observation Project (U.S.) SSGN Service Geographique National (Senegal) SSI Surface Systems Inc. S-SIG Sureying Special Interest Group SSK Stereo Softcopy Kit (Intergraph Corp.) SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave Imager SSMC Silver Spring Metro Center (NOAA) SSMS Spatial statistical modeling service SSS Side Scan SONAR; Simple "Sight" Survey (Carlson Software) SSSA Soil Science Society of America SST Sea-surface temperature SSU Strategic Services Unit (U.S. War Dept.); Secondary sampling unit; Stratospheric Sounding Unit SSURGO Soil Survey Geographical (database) SSW South Southwest SS1 SpaceShipOne St Saint; Street STAAC Space and Terrestrial Applications Advisory Committee STAC State Technology Applications Centers (NASA) StatsCan Statistics Canada STATSGO State Geographic Database (U.S.) Stb. Steinbruch = stone quarry STC Standard Telephones & Cables PLC; Stanford Technology Corp. STCB Survey Technician Certification Board (ASCM) Stde. Stunde = hour STEPS Spatial Templates for Emergency Preparedness (PlanGraphics, Inc.) STDM Social Tenure Domain Model; Stadium STDN Spacecraft Tracking and Data Network STF Summary tape file STIA Spatial Technologies Industry Association STIBOKA Stichting voor Bodemkartering (Netherlands) STINASU Stichting Natuurbescherming Suriname STK Satellite Tool Kit (Analytical Graphics, Inc.); Surveyor's Tool Kit STM Stream; System test mode; Solid Terrain Modeling; Solid Terrain Modeling, Inc. STMA Anabranch STMD Distributary STMI Intermittent stream STMM Stream mouth Str. Strasse = street STRT Strait STV Service Topographique (Vanuatu) SU Standard update; Stanford University; Syracuse University SUC Society of University Cartographers SUDENE Superintendencia de Desenvolvimento do Nordeste (Brazil) SuDocs Superintendent of Documents (U.S.) SUDSS Spatial understanding and decision support system SUE Surface utility engineering SUGK Slovak Office of Geodesy and Cartography SUM Standard update, monoscopic SUNI Stockholms Universitet Naturgeografiska Institutionen SUNMAP Dept. of Natural Resources (Queensland) and its earlier names: Dept. of Lands; Division of Information, Dept. of Lands; Dept. of Geographic Information; Dept. of Mapping and Surveying Sur. Surveyor SUS Standard update, stereoscopic SV Space vehicle SVC Scalable Vector Graphics SVD Singular Value Decomposition SVF Simple Vector Format SVG Scalable Vector Graphics S-VGA Super Video Graphics Array SVP Society of Vertebrate Paleontology SW Software; Southwest; Surface water S/W Software SWA Super-wide angle SWAB Southwest Alluvial Basins (project, NM) SWDC Southwestern Colorado Data Center SWEMP Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping program SWG Standards working group SWIR Short wave infrared SWMD Selected World Mineral Deposits SWOOP South Western Ontario Orthophotography Project S.W.P.A. Southwest Pacific Area (Allied Forces) SYCI System Corrected Images SYMAP Synagraphic Mapping System SzBPK Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz S3 Satellite Security Systems t Tonne t. tief = deep T Township; photogrammetric elevation (measured with stereo plotter); Tramontana, Tramuntana, Triones = North T. Tiefe = depth TAC Terrain Analysis Center (USCE); Technology Accreditation Commission (ABET); Topcon America Corporation TACA Transportes Aereos Centro Americanos TACAN Tactical Air Navigation TACC Texas Advanced Computing Center TAG Tabular and Graphic (system); Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse TAPS Tennessee Assn. of Professional Surveyors TAR Tape address register TARA The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives (UK) TARGA TrueVision Advanced Raster Graphics Adapter TASC Transportation Administration Service Center (US); The Analytic Sciences Corp. TASMAP Tasmania Dept. of Lands TAVO Tubinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients TAZ Traffic analysis zone TBD To be determined TBM Temporary bench mark; Tunnel boring machine TBPLS Texas Board of Professional Land Surveying TBV To be verified T.C.H. Thomas Campanius Holm TCI Touring Club Italiano TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCT Trans-continental Traverse (U.S.) TD Thematic data; Topographic Div. (USGS); Total depth; Topographische dienst (Netherlands) TdA Teledeteccion Aplicada, S.A. TDC Tennessee Dept. of Conservation TDD Telecommunications Device for the Deaf TDM Tasmania Dept. of Mines TDN Topografische Dienst Nederland TDOA Time Difference of Arrival TDOT Tennessee Dept. of Transportation TDR Time Domain Reflectrometry TDRSS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (US DoD) TDS Tripod Data Systems TDSA Tribal designated statistical area TDT Terrestrial Dynamic Time T.E. Topographical Engineer TEC The Engineering Center; Topographic Engineering Center (USCE) TEFIS Transmission Electrical Facilities Information System (Santee Cooper) TEKPLOT Tektronix Plotting (DLG software) TELEX Teletypewriter Exchange TELNET Telecommunications Network Tenn. Tennessee TERCOM Terrain Contour Matching TERSS Tasmanian Earth Resource Satellite Station TES Terrain Edit System TESC Tile enclosed elevator with self-closing traps TESEMPS Terrain Edit Station/Elevation Matrix Processing System Tex. Texas TEXPLOT Tektronix Plotting (DLG software) TFC Forestry Commission Tasmania TFEL Thin-film electrolumiscent TFH Technische Fachhoschule (Berlin) TGO Trimble Geomatics Office TGS Technicolor Graphic Services, Inc. T.H. Triple hydrant; Territory of Hawaii THNOC The Historic New Orleans Collection THSOA The Hydrographic Society of America TI Technical instruction; Technical investigation; Texas Instruments; Topographic instruction TIB Tabula Imperii Byzantini TIC Technical Information Center (NASA) .TIF Tagged Image File TIFF Tagged Image File Format TIGA Texas Instruments Graphics Architecture TIGER Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing TIGRIS Topologically Integrated Geographic Resource and Information System TIMS Therms Infrared Multispectral Scanner TIN Triangulated irregular network TIR Thermal infrared ; Tabula Imperii Romani TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite TIRS Thermal Infrared Scanner TJSA Tribal jurisdiction statistical area TLI Terrain Line Interpolation TLID TIGER/Line Record Identification Number TLM Telemetry; Topographic Line Map TLSD Tuvalu Lands and Survey Div. TLUI Traditional Land Use Inventory (NSB GIS Div.) TLV Threshold limit value TM Thematic Mapper (Landsat); Timber management TMAC Technical Mapping Advisory Council (US) TMC The Map Collector (journal); Thinking Machines Corp. TMDL Total maximum daily load TMI Topographic Mapping Initiatives (NR Can) TMLS Ministry of Lands, Survey and Natural Resources (Tonga); Terrestrial mobile LIDAR scanning TMS Thematic Mapper Simulator; Topographic Mapping Service (Geomatics Canada); TIGER Mapping Service TN Tennessee TNA The National Archives (UK) TNP Terrain Navigator Pro (Maptech); Transportation Network Profile TNRIS Texas Natural Resources Information System TNS TopoNet Server (Maps a la carte, Inc.) T-O Orbis terrarum (Medieval European map type: Nile and Don rivers and Mediterranean form a "T" surrounded by ocean in the shape of an "O") TOF Time of flight TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (NASA) TOPOCOM U.S. Army Topographic Command TOPS Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System TOSCA The Oxford Seminars in Cartography Tp. Township TPC Tactical Pilotage Chart; Traverse PC TPM Theodolitprufmachine TPS Thin-plate splines; Topcon Positioning Systems TP&W Texas Parks and Wildlife TQ Topographic quadrangle TR Township and Range (public land survey) TRACE Topographic Resources and Cost Evaluation (system) Trafo Transformator TRB Technical Review Board (U.S.) TRE Topaz Ranch Estates (Nevada) TRF Terrestrial Reference Frame Trgf. Tragfahigkeit = Carrying capacity TRI Toxic Release Inventory (USEPA) TRIM Terrain Resource Information Management (program, British Columbia) TRMM Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission T/RS Township/Range System TRS Trimble Reference Station TRSC Thailand Remote Sensing Center TS Top secret TSA Texas Surveyors Association TSARP Tropical Storm Allison Recovery Project TSC1 Trimble System Controller TSD Treatment, storage and disposal sites TSGS Topographic Section, General Staff (Gt. Brit.) TSI Teqnical Services Inc. TSIS Total Solar Irradiance Sensor TSOP The Society for Organic Petrology TSPS Texas Society of Professional Surveyors TSS2 TurboSurvey Software 2 TT TT Maps & Publications Private Ltd. TTD Tactical terrain data TTPI Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands TTY Teletype TUG Triuniversity Group TUNS Technical University of Nova Scotia TVA Tennessee Valley Authority T.V.K. & Co Tanner, Vallance, Kearny & Co. TVP Topological vector profile TWA Time-weighted average Twp. Township TWRA Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency TWRI Techniques of Water Resources Investigations (USGS) TX Texas TxDAPA Texas Digital Aerial Photo Archive TxDOT Texas Dept. of Transportation TxMAP Texas Mapping Project TXRTK Texas RTK Network U Unclassified UA Urban area (Canada); Urbanized area UAM United Aerial Mapping; Urban Airshed Model (USEPA) UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter UAS Urban Area Studies UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UC Univ. of California UCAID Univ. Corp. for Advanced Internet Development UCB Univ. of California, Berkeley UCD Univ. of California, Davis UCDL University of California Digital Library UCGIS Univ. Consortium for GIS UCLGES Unified Cartographic Line Graph Encoding System UCLS Utah Council of Land Surveyors UCPTE Union for the Coordination of the Production and Transport of Electric Power UCS Uniform Color Space UCSB Univ. of California, Santa Barbara UDA User data area UDB Universal Data Base UDC Universal Decimal Classification UDF Universal Data Format uDIG User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS UDNR Utah Dept. of Natural Resources UDOGM Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining UDP User Datagram Protocol UDS Urban Data Solutions UDSL Utah Division of State Lands UDWR Utah Division of Water Resources UE Useful elevation UGB Urban growth boundary UGC Utility Graphics Consultants UGID Universal Geographic Identity UGKK SR Urad geodezie, kartografie e katastra Slovenskej republiky UGS Utah Geological Survey UGMS Utah Geological and Mineral Survey UGSMD Uganda Geological Survey and Mines Dept. UHF Ultra-high frequency UHGP Upland Habitat Goals Project (San Francisco Bay Area, California) UHMS Urban Hydrology Monitoring System UID Unique identifier; User identification UK United Kingdom U.K. United Kingdom UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office ULCC Utility Location and Coordination Council ULSD Uganda Dept. of Lands and Surveys UMAC Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium UML Unified Modeling Language UMS Universal Map Sharing (Traverse PC) UN United Nations UNAM Universidad Nacional de Mexico UNCLA Unclassified UNDP United Nations Development Program UNECA United Nations Economic Commission for Africa UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNGEGN United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names UNGIWG United Nations Geographical Information Working Group UNIMACE Universal Automated Mapping Compilation Equipment Univ. University UNR Univ. of Nevada, Reno UP Urban planning UPADI Union Panamerica de Asociaciones de Ingenieros UPC Universal Product Code UPPS Universal Projection Plotting System UPRN Unique Property Reference Number UPRR Union Pacific Railroad UPS Universal polar stereographic UQAM Universite du Quebec a Montreal UR Universal Rectifier U/R Urban/rural URISA Urban and Regional Information Systems Assn. URUID Unrectified image data URL Universal Resource Locator; Uniform Resource Locator URPI Unit for Retail Planning Information Ltd. URS Unrestricted random sample U.S. United States of America USA United States of America; United States Army USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USACERL U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories USAETL United States Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories USAF United States Air Force USAP United States Antarctic Program USARP United States Antarctic Research Program USB Underwriters' Survey Bureau; Unified S-Band USBC United States Bureau of the Census USC Unified soil classification USC&GS United States Coast and Geodetic Survey USCE United States Army Corps of Engineers USCG United States Coast Guard USCS United States Customary System USD Univ. of South Dakota USDA United States Dept. of Agriculture USDC United States Dept. of Commerce USDI United States Dept. of the Interior USDMA United States Defense Mapping Agency USDOT U.S. Dept. of Transportation USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency USFS United States Forest Service USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service USGCRP U.S. Global Change Research Program USGIF United States Geospatial Intelligence Foundation USGK Utstredni Sprava Geodezie a Kartografie (Czechoslovakia) USGPO United States Government Printing Office USGS United States Geological Survey USGS-MP United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park USLS United States Lake Survey USMC United States Marine Corps USNBS United States National Biological Survey USN United States Navy USNCHC United States National Committee on Scientific Hydrology USNC-ICA United States National Committee for the ICA USNG US National Grid USNO United States Naval Observatory USNOS United States National Ocean Service (or Survey) USPLSS U.S. Public Land Survey System USPS United States Postal Service USR Universal Space Rectangular (coordinate system) USSCS United States Soil Conservation Service UST Underground storage tank UT Unit terminator; Universal Time; Unorganized territory; Utah UTA University of Texas at Arlington UTC Universal Time Coordinated; Urban Traffic Control System (Siemans) UTM Universal transverse Mercator UTMS Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems U-TDOA Uplink Time Difference of Arrival (TruePosition) UUG Utstredni Ustav Geologicky UURI Univ. of Utah Research Inst. UV Ultraviolet; Unit value UW Univ. of Washington UWM Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison UVMap Urban VMap UWCL Univ. of Wisconsin Cartography Laboratory (Madison) U-2 A high altitude remote sensing aircraft w westlich W Westen WA Washington (State) WAAS Wide area augmentation system (or sites) WAC World Aeronautical Chart WACMA Western Australia Central Map Agency WADGPS Wide Area Differential GPS WADM Dept. of Mines Western Australia WAG Wireless Assisted GPS WAGAP Washington Gap Analysis Program WAGDA Washington State Geospatial Data Archive WAGN West Antarctic GPS Network WAIS Wide-area Information Server (or Service or System); Western Antarctic Ice Sheet WALIS Western Australian Land Information System WAM Western Air Maps, Inc. WAML Western Assn. of Map Libraries WAML IB Western Assn. of Map Libraries Information Bulletin WAN Wide area network WAP Wireless Application Protocol WASP Wildfire Airborne Sensor Program Wash. Washington (State) WAT Weighted-average toxicity WB World Bank WBVT Wide-band video tape WBVTR Wide-band video tape recorder WCB Workshop Certification Board (ACSM) WCCS Washington Council of County Surveyors; Wisconsin County Coordinate System WCMC World Conservation Monitoring Center WCRP World Climate Research Program WCS World Construction Set (Questar Productions); World coordinate system WCWMC William C. Wonders Map Collection (Univ. of Alberta) WC2N Western Canadian Cryospheric Network WD Working Draft (ISO) WDB I World Data Bank I (US CIA) WDB II World Data Base II WDDES World Digital Database for Environmental Science (ICA/IGU) WDG Washington Dept. of Game WDGER Washington Div. of Geology and Earth Resources Wdlg. Widerlager W.D.M.C. War Dept. Map Collection (U.S.) WDMS Watershed Data Management System WDNR Washington Dept. of Natural Resources WDOE Washington Dept. of Ecology WEF Water Environment Federation WELU Western Energy Land Use Team WESTFED Western Federation of Professional Surveyors WET Wetland Evaluation Technique WFPLS Western Federation of Professional Land Surveyors WFPS Western Federation of Professional Surveyors W.G. Wired glass skylight WGMG Working Group on Map Generalization (ICA) WGNHS Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey WGS World Geodetic System; World Geodetic Survey WGS 84 World Geodetic System of 1984 W.H. Wirtshaus = public house, inn; William Harrison WI Wisconsin WIC Westindische Compagnie WIMS Weather Information Management System Wis. Wisconsin WIS Watershed Information System WISCLAND Wisconsin Initiative for Statewide Cooperation on Landscape Analysis and Data WISE Women Investigating Sciences and Environment (Univ. of Nebraska) WLA William Lettis and Associates, Inc. WLIA Wisconsin Land Information Society WLS Weighted least squares WLU World Land-use Survey WMATA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority WMC Western Mapping Center (USGS) WMD Water management district WME Window to My Environment (US EPA) .WMF Windows Metafile Format WML Wireless markup language WMO World Meteorological Organization; Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe WMP World Mapping Project WMS Washington (D.C.) Map Society; Web Map Server; Web Map Service (Open GIS Consortium); Work Management System; World Mapping System; World Market Strategies Ltd. WNRO GPS Week Number Roll Over WNW West northwest WO Welsh Office WOM Web Object Management WORM Write Once, Read Many WP Word processor WPCF Water Pollution Control Federation .WPG WordPerfect Graphic format WPU Wilayah Pembangunan Utama WQM Water quality monitor WR Water Resources; Western Region WRAP Western Regional Applications Program (NASA) WRCB Water Resources Control Board WRD Water Resources Div. (USGS); Water Resources Dept. WRI Water Resources Investigations (USGS) WRIDS Wildland Resources Information Display System WRIP Water Resources Information Project (Ontario) WRIR Water Resources Investigation Report WRIS Wildland Resources Information System WRRI Water Resources Research Inst. WRS World Reference System (Landsat) WRSIC Water Resources Scientific Information Center WS Work station WSC Water Survey of Canada WSDOT Washington State Dept. of Transportation WSG Wine Specialty Group (Assn. of American Geographers) WSGS Wyoming State Geological Survey WSLD Western Samoa Lands and Survey Dept. WSLS Wisconsin Society of Land Surveyors WSM Widener Surveying and Mapping (Firm) WSP Water-supply Paper WSPS Western Society of Professional Surveyors WSRN Washington State Reference Network WSU Washington State Univ. WSUCSC Washington State Univ. Computing Service Center WSW West southwest W.T. Water tank; Washington Territory WTCD Deltaic watercourse WT&H Woodward, Tiernan & Hale WTUSM Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping WV West Virginia W. Va West Virginia WVALS West Virginia Assn. of Land Surveyors WVGES West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey WVS World Vector Shoreline (USDMA) WVS+ World Vector Shoreline Plus WVSPLUS World Vector Shoreline Plus WWW World Wide Web WY Wyoming Wyo. Wyoming WYSDOT Washington State Dept. of Transportation WYSIWYG What you see is what you get W3C World Wide Web Consortium