The Hong Kong Identity Card (Chinese: 香港身份證; : Hēunggóng sānfánjing, abbreviation: HKID) is an official issued by the of . According to the Registration of Persons Ordinance (Cap. 177), all residents of age 11 or above who are living in Hong Kong for longer than 180 days must, within 30 days of either reaching the age of 11 or arriving in Hong Kong, register for an HKID. HKIDs contain amongst others the name of the bearer in English, and if applicable in . The HKID does not expire for the duration of residency in Hong Kong.
The Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card (: 香港永久性居民身份證; : Hēunggóng wíhnggáusing gēuimàn sānfánjing) is a class of HKID issued to who have the (ROA) in the Hong Kong . There are around 8.8 million Hong Kong identity cards in circulation.
The use of identity documents has a long history in Hong Kong, starting with manually filled paper documents, to the smart card introduced on 23 June 2003.
Before 1949, people could move freely into and out of Hong Kong (then a ), and China (then ). Hong Kong residents who held were not registered. In 1949, when the retreated to and the was established on the mainland, the began to register Hong Kong residents to issue compulsory identity documents. These measures were put into practice to halt the large influx of from Communist China and control the border with . The registration was completed in 1951. Although registration was compulsory for all residents, people were not required to carry their documents with them at all times when out in public.
Beginning on 1 June 1960, the government introduced the second generation of ID cards. These bore the holder's fingerprint and photograph, and an official stamp. The information was typed, and the card was laminated. Males had a blue card and females had a red card. The format of card was replaced in November 1973 with a card without fingerprints. The colour of the stamp identified and differentiated permanent residents (black) from non-permanent ones (green). New immigrants subsequently became known colloquially as "green stampers" (: 綠印客; : luhk yan haak).
From 24 October 1980, carrying the identity card in public areas and showing it when requested by a police or immigration officer became compulsory. This law was passed to halt large numbers of illegal immigrants arriving in the territory. The government adopted a policy of deporting illegal immigrants within three days if they could not produce a valid ID card.
From March 1983, digitally processed identity cards were introduced to reduce forgery. This also simplified border controls. On 1 June 1987, the Immigration Department produced cards without the coat of arms of British Hong Kong, which would last through the handover on 1 July 1997. Following the handover the cards display a smaller seal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the back of the card. In 2003, the government began replacing the cards with smart IDs in stages.
Hong Kong Smart Identity Cards
From 23 June 2003, only Smart ID cards were issued. Between August 2003 to 2007, all Hong Kong ID cards were replaced.
On 23 June 2003, the began issuing a new revised Smart Identity card. The new cards contain an , which stores the bearer's information electronically. Previous HKIDs remained valid until the , through the , declared them invalid. In addition, existing holders of HKID documents were called to apply to have their old-style HKID documents replaced by the new cards. This eligibility was offered to existing HKID holders based on their date of birth on a rolling basis to prevent the volume of applications exceeding the pace at which the government could issue these revised documents. The has been gradually moving the window of applicants eligible for replacement. Persons born in 1993 to 1996 or 1986 to 1989 should have applied/apply for smart identity cards at the Registration of Persons Offices when they attain the age of 11 or 18.
The introduction of Smart Identity Cards was, motivated partially by the influx of counterfeit HKID documents being produced in China, and partially to speed up processing at Hong Kong's Immigration checkpoints, especially into , China. In the latter checkpoint, an estimated 7,200 Hong Kong residents commuted daily to Shenzhen for work and 2,200 students from Shenzhen commuted to school in Hong Kong in 2002.
Classes of HKID
There are two classes of Hong Kong Identity Card:
- Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card (Chinese: 香港永久性居民身份證) – states that the holder has the in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
- Hong Kong Identity Card (Chinese: 香港身份證) – which does not state that right.
The card types can be further divided into cards bearing the term "child" (below age 11 and not compulsory. The card can be requested to obtain later a passport with a Hong Kong permanent resident number), "youth" (from age 11 up until 18), and "adult" (issued from age 18 onwards).
Permanent HKID and right of abodeAcknowledgement of Application for HKID
Permanent HKID holders have the (: 居留權; : Gēuilàu kyùn) in Hong Kong. Under the , a person who belongs to one of the following categories is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with right of abode privileges:
- Chinese citizen born in Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the HKSAR
- Chinese citizen who has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years before or after the establishment of the HKSAR.
- Person of Chinese nationality born outside Hong Kong before or after the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to a parent who, at the time of birth of that person, was a Chinese citizen falling within category (1) or (2).
- Person not of Chinese nationality who has entered Hong Kong with a valid travel document, has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than seven years and has taken Hong Kong as his place of permanent residence before or after the establishment of the HKSAR.
- Person under 21 years of age born in Hong Kong to a parent who is a permanent resident of the HKSAR in category (4) before or after the establishment of the HKSAR if at the time of his birth or at any later time before he attains 21 years of age, one of his parents has the ROA in Hong Kong.
- Person other than those residents in categories (1) to (5), who, before the establishment of the HKSAR, had the ROA in Hong Kong only.
Paper versions of the Hong Kong Identity card (such as the one on the right) are issued by the Registration of Persons Office for temporary use until a smart card can be manufactured. This process requires two weeks, and the smart card must be collected within six weeks.
Hong Kong Identity Card
The following conditions are required to receive a non-permanent Hong Kong Identity Card: (to be expanded)
- Right to Land – free from any condition of stay (including a limit of stay) or removal from HKSAR (and does not possess the right of abode)
- Anyone 11 years of age or above who enters and is permitted to stay in Hong Kong for more than 180 days
Residents of Hong Kong are required to obtain an HKID card at the age of 11. Hong Kong residents over age 15 are required to carry legal identification with them at all times (that is, the HKID card). Bearers of a "youth" HKID card must switch to an "adult" HKID within 30 days after their 18th birthday. The "youth" card will be invalid as re-entry travel document 30 days after the 18th birthday.
Photographs are not required on HKID for children under the age of 11 and cannot be used as a travel document. A is issued in its place. Alternatively, children may use their or their as a travel document to enter and exit .
HKID cards contain the bearer's HKID number, of which the standard format is X123456(A). X represents any one or two letters of the alphabet. The letter U followed by any letter of the alphabet (UH and UY are common, though others exist) are usually given to mothers who have just given birth, but may or may not have right of abode in Hong Kong, and are therefore temporary until a proper number can be established. Also, babies cannot hold HKIDs but hospital filing systems are based on ID number, hence the need to assign temporary ones. The numerals may represent any Arabic number.
A is the which has 11 possible values from 0 to 9 and A. There are 26 million possible card numbers using only the one-letter prefix, and 676 million using a two-letter prefix. The ID numbers of deceased are not recycled. It is also noted that the check digit in brackets is not part of the identity card number, but appended solely to facilitate computer data processing.
Information on first and second-generation computerised HKID
- Name in Chinese (if any)
- Name in English
- Name in (if any)
- Date of birth
- Holder's digital image
- Month and year of first registration
- Date of registration
- Date of expiry (first-generation computerised Hong Kong ID card only)
- Identity card number (Note)
Notes and codes on the cardSymbol Description the holder is of the age of 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit. the holder is between the age of 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit. A the holder has the right of abode in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.). B the holder's place of birth, date of birth or gender has been changed since his/ her first registration. C the holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. F the holder is a female. H1 code of ID card issuing office K2 code of ID card issuing office L the holder has lost his/ her ID card once or more since his/ her first registration; 'L1' means he/ she has lost his/ her ID card once, 'L2' means twice, and so on.. M the holder is a male. R the holder has a right to land in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.). S1 code of ID card issuing office U the holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. Y the Immigration Department has verified the holder's reported date of birth by his/ her birth certificate or passport. Z the holder's place of birth reported is Hong Kong. X the holder's place of birth reported is the Mainland (mainland China). W the holder's place of birth reported is the region of Macau. O the holder's place of birth reported is in other countries. N the holder's name has been changed since his/ her first registration.
The other difference between the first and second generation cards is the replacement of the Coat of Arms from the back, which was done to remove any colonial features in preparation of the handover in 1997.
Information on the face of a smart HKID
- Name in Chinese (if any)
- Name in English
- Name in (if any)
- Date of birth
- Holder's digital image
- Month and year of first registration
- Date of (this) registration
- Identity card number
Notes and codes on the cardSymbol Description the holder is of the age of 18 or over and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit. the holder is between the age of 11 and 17 and is eligible for a Hong Kong (S. A. R.) Re-entry Permit. A the holder has the right of abode in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.). C the holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. R the holder has a right to land in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.). U the holder's stay in (the) Hong Kong (S. A. R.) is not limited by the Director of Immigration at the time of his registration of the card. Z the holder's place of birth reported is Hong Kong. X the holder's place of birth reported is the Mainland (mainland China). W the holder's place of birth reported is the region of Macau. O the holder's place of birth reported is in other countries. B the holder's place of birth or date of birth has been changed since their first registration. N the holder's name has been changed since their first registration.
Names in Chinese and Roman script
It is common for Chinese to adopt western-style English names (such as John, Mary, etc.), in addition to their phonetic English names, after being registered on the birth register. Some of them may wish to include their western-style English name as part of their official English name (this is known as 'adding an English name' locally). They can apply to the Immigration Department for including such name as part of their official English name (example: someone named 'Tai Ming CHAN' may have adopted a Western-style English name Peter and wish to have this name shown as 'Peter Tai Ming CHAN' ('Peter' as a first name) or 'Tai Ming Peter CHAN' ('Peter' as a middle name)) on his HKID card and the government's records. This is not considered by the Immigration Department as a name change. The Immigration Department considers that his or her original name (in the format of 'Tai Man CHAN') is an alias, and that the newly lodged name (usually in the format of 'Peter Tai Man CHAN' or 'Tai Man Peter CHAN') is the proper name of the applicant (in the sense that such name is the 'proper name' of the applicant). A legal hangover from the former British administration is that the English transliteration of a persons Chinese name is their official legal name, and not as would be expected their name in Chinese characters.
Normally, when non-ethnic Chinese register for their first HKID card, the space reserved for a Chinese name is automatically left blank by the Immigration Department. It is possible, however, to add a name in Chinese characters at any time through application to the Immigration Department. Where a non-ethnic Chinese person applies to add a name in Chinese characters after first registration, this is considered by the Immigration Department as a name change.
Use as a travel document
The Hong Kong identity card by itself can be used to travel to , as long as the holder has the right of abode or the right to land in Hong Kong, (the holder is able to stay for up to one year in Macau visa-free).
also accepts the Hong Kong permanent identity card by itself for entry, for a stay of up to 90 days within 180 days.
Some foreign territories require holders to present their HKID as well to benefit from a visa exemption scheme: these places include and the . Only HKSAR passport holders who were not born in Hong Kong or Macau are required to possess HKID when entering .
HKID holders who possess right of abode or right to land are automatically eligible to use the e-Channel when arriving at or departing from Hong Kong. The e-Channel is not available when using a HKSAR passport and the person must clear immigration at an inspection counter if he or she arrives at or depart from a port of entry without HKID. Non-permanent residents are also eligible if they hold a or if they are successfully registered for e-Channel.